Visual aids are the tools of teaching through the sense of sight. They are supporting materials & they alone cannot generate learning. They should be considered only a tool that helps to do a job in a better way.Visual aids are of different types. The following are the more commonly used ones in India:
A good poster creates awareness & interest among the people. It inspires & takes people towards action. It consists of 3 main parts. The first usually announces the purpose or the approach, the second sets out conditions, & the third recommends action. A poster should be bold enough to attract attention of the people, & should communicate only one idea at a time. It should have simple letters which are clear & forceful. The size of a poster should not be less than 50*75 cm.
Flannel-graphs serve as a good teaching aid. When a piece of sandpaper is fixed to the back of a picture, a photograph, a letter, etc. They can be made to adhere easily to a piece of thick flannel cloth, fixed on a board. They are used as an aid for group methods like informal talks or lectures.
Flash cards are a set of small compact cards approximately 30 to 45 cm. In size, & are used to bring home an idea, such as the benefits of a smokeless Chula, the cultivation of hybrid maize, compost-making & other practices. Pictures on the theme are drawn on these cards in a logical sequence which are flashed before the audience. Upon seeing them, the villagers are able to follow a story more easily.
Puppets are very popular & especially suitable for village situations. Puppet shows can be effectively organized to gather the rural people. For a puppet show, a short story, brief scenes & quick dialogues are necessary. Such shows can teach a lesson about health, literacy, agriculture. Or home-making.
A slide is a transparent picture or photograph in an individual mount. For viewing the image, the picture is projected through a slide-projector which brings the enlarged image into focus on a screen. Slides are excellent aids of illustrating talks & showing people concrete activities & aspects of development. They can be effectively used to show different situations & methods of carrying out an activity. They can be arranged in a series for giving an illustrated talk on improved agricultural practices, cultivation of, etc.
They are a series of black-and-white or colored pictures depicting a single idea, & instead of being individually mounted are printed on a single length of strip of 35-mm film. Such strips can be shown to an audience of about a 100 people. The additional advantage in using the film-strips is that the film can be stopped anytime during the show to explain or discuss a difficult or interesting point.
Models create a sense of realization in a person. Models of new equipments, compost pits & sanitation devices & animals are mostly prepared for those people who are not in a position to see them in the actual form. They are used to create interest, promote understanding & influence the people to adopt a certain practice.
A bulletin-board can serve the purpose of making announcements, displaying events of short duration & photographs of local activities. The information should be written in simple language.
They are a very simple visual aid. Good photographs show some action & catch the feelings & emotions of the people. They are so arranged that they tell a story. They are displayed on a bulletin-board at a common meeting-place where a large number of people can see them. They should be clear & bold in composition with proper captions.
They provide writing & drawing surface for chalk. They are usually used in schools, colleges & meeting places. They make possible the use of sketches, drawings, words, symbols of a combination of them to emphasize a point. Black-boards are most useful in group-teaching methods.
Local cultural programmed, such as folk-songs & dramas are used as an effective medium of communicating the message of development programmed. Dramatization of a theme or story creates a lively interest among the audience. Folk-songs & dances related to the subjects of local interest & importance, when acted on the stage, bring them home more forcefully.
For an effective use of extension-teaching methods, it is not enough to know these methods & their techniques. What is more important is the appropriate selection of a method or combination of methods for a particular situation. In fact, when a farmer is exposed to a new idea several times by different methods or a combination of methods, he is likely to accept it more quickly. Farmers learn about new practices through several stages. These stages are known as:
- The awareness stage- when a person comes to know of a new practice but lacks the complete information;
- The interest stage- when he becomes interested in a new idea & wants to know more about it;
- The evaluation stage- when he mentally applies the new idea to his present situation & evaluates it;
- The trial stage- when he applies the new idea or practice on a small scale in order to determine its utility under his own situation;
- Adoption stage- when he decides to continue the full use of the practice. Thus, it is the cumulative affect on people through exposure to an idea repeatedly that result in action.
Submitted by krishnadubey on Tue, 27/12/2011 - 15:28