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Wheat scenario

Wheat scenario at global level

Wheat is cultivated mainly in temperate and sub temperate regions of the world. Presently at global level, it occupies approximately 240 million hectare with production of approximately 600 million tones. China, India and U.S.A. are first ,second and third, respectively in wheat production. In addition to these, other countries are Canada, Argentina, Australia, Soviet Russia, France and Italy where wheat is cultivated at larger scale. Area, production and productivity of main wheat countries are given in Table 1.

Table 1.  Area, production and productivity of major wheat growing countries in the world (2005)

Country

Area

(million ha)

Production (million tones)

Productivity

 (q/ha)

Argentina

12.85

12.58

9.78

Canada

9.83

26.77

27.24

Pakistan

8.36

21.61

25.85

Turkey

9.30

21.00

22.58

Russion federation

24.62

47.69

19.37

India

26.49

72.00

27.18

China

44.79

97.45

21.75

United states of America

20.27

57.28

28.25

Australia

12.63

25.09

19.87

France

5.27

36.84

69.87

Source: www.faostat.fao.org

Wheat scenario in India

Wheat has distinct history in India. Considerable increase in wheat production during 60s led to green revolution in the country and makes the country self sufficient in food grain. This significant contribution of wheat ushered Green Revolution in India. Area, production and productivity of wheat in India during 1950-51 and 2007-08 is shown in Table 2.

Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajshthan, Bihar, Haryana, Maharashtra, and Gujarat are major wheat growing states in the country.  Though the maximum acreage and production of wheat is in Uttar Pradesh but Punjab gives highest average yield per hectare (4221 kg/ha) followed by Haryana (3901kg/ha). Area, production and productivity of main wheat growing states of India are given in Table 3.

Table  2  Area, production and productivity from 1950-51 to 2007- 08

Year

Area

(million ha)

Production (million tones)

Productivity

 (q/ha)

1950-51

9.8

6.5

6.63

1960-61

12.9

11.0

8.51

1967-68 *

14.9

16.5

11.03

1970-71

18.2

23.8

13.07

1980-81

22.3

36.3

16.30

1990-91

24.2

55.1

22.81

1999-2000 **

27.5

76.4

27.78

2000-2001

25.7

69.7

27.08

2002-03

25.2

69.3

27.47

2003-04

25.2

65.8

26.11

2004-05

26.6

72.0

27.07

2005-06

26.0

69.5

27.00

2006-07

27.9

75.8

27.00

2007-08

27.7

78.4

28.00

* Green revolution year   ** Maximum wheat production year

Table 3.  Area, production and productivity of major wheat growing states in India (2004-05)

State

Area

 (million ha)

Production (million tones)

Productivity

(q/ha)

East states

  • Bihar

2027.6

3263.4

16.09

  • West Bengal

400.1

841.5

21.03

North states

  • Punjab

3482.0

14698.0

42.21

  • Haryana

2322.0

9058.0

39.01

  • Uttar Pradesh

8999.8

22513.9

25.02

  • Himachal Pradesh

362.0

684.0

18.90

  • Jammu & Kashmir

248.4

474.4

19.10

Western & Central states

  • Gujrat

727.4

1805.5

24.82

  • Madhya Pradesh

4136.2

7176.6

17.35

  • Maharashtra

756

1016

13.44

  • Rajasthan

2010.1

5706.6

28.39

South states

Karnataka

242.0

179

7.40

All India

26382.9

68636.9

26.02

Source: Fertilizer Statistics of India, 2005-2006, FAI, New Delhi

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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.