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Vegetable pea varieties

Archaeological evidences suggest the existence of pea (Pisum stativum L.) in India before the advent of the Aryans. This pea was round and non-sweet pulse type (P. sativum var. arvense). The sweet garden pea (P. sativum var. hortense) varieties developed in temperate regions of Europe might have been introduced in India during the British regime. Some of the hardly and round seeded garden pea varieties like Bonia, Kaip, Asauji, etc. may possibly be the early introductions of the Britishers. These are less sensitive to wilt even under warmer conditions and have been used in different breeding progranimes. So introduction of exotic varieties form the mainstay of breeding garden pea in India. They are either used as varieties as such or utilized in combination breeding programmes to develop new varieties. The varieties are described under two groups according to their maturity period, viz., early and mid-season varieties.

Early variety

The early varieties are more popular in India because of better economic return. They are not high yielders but give high initial remuneration to the growers. Two pickings of green pods are generally done in these varieties, the first being after 60 days of sowing and second after 15-20 days of first picking. The maturity period is 60-80 days.

  1. Asauji. A dwarf, green and smooth seeded variety developed at IARI by selection made from the genetic material collected from Amritsar. Pods are produced singly; flowering in 30-35 days after sowing and blossom appear in 6-7 node. Pods are about 8 cm long, curved, dark green, narrow and appear round when fully developed, seven seeded and giving high shelling percentage (45%).
  2. Early Superb. An introduced and dwarf variety from England with yellowish green foliage. It flowers in about 45 days and first blossom appears at 8-10th node. Pods are borne singly; these are dark green, curved with 6-7 smooth seeds. It gives high shelling percentage (40%).
  3. Meteor. An introduced variety from England. Plants are 35-40 cm tall, dark green, pods are produce singly, dark green, 8.7 cm long with seven smooth seeds. It gives high shelling percentage (45%).
  4. Arkel. This widely grown variety is, an exotic variety from France. The plant is dwarf but the growth is vigorous and may grow upto 45 cm. Flowers are white and are borne in double on few lower nodes and single afterwards. It flowers in 35-40 days from the sixth node onwards. Pods are dark green, 8.5 cm long, incurved towards the sutures and pointed distal end with 8-10 well filled, wrinkled seeds. It gives high shelling percentage (40%). It is suitable for both fresh market and dehydration. It takes 50-55 days for first picking. Green pod yield 4-5 t/ha. This variety is highly susceptible to powdery mildew.
  5. Early Badger. A dwarf, wrinkled seeded variety introduced from USA. Pods are ready for picking in 60-65 days after sowing. First blossom appears in 10-11th node; pods are yellowish green and borne singly, 7.5 cm long with 5-6 bold and sweet seeds. It is a good caning variety and resistant to Fusarium wilt.
  6. Little Marvel. A dwarf, wrinkled seeded variety introduced from England. It is bred in England from the cross Chelsea Gem x Suttons Alaska. Foliage dark green; first blossom appears at 9-10th node in 40 days after sowing. Pods are 8 cm long, borne singly, thick, shinny, dark green, straight and broad containing 5-6 very sweet seeds.
  7. Alaska. An introduced variety from England. Pods are light green and appears singly with 5-6 small, bluish-green seeds.
  8. VL-Ageti Matar-7 (VL-7). Developed at Almora through advanced generation selection from the cross Pant Uphar x Arkel. Plants are dwarf with dark green foliage and white flowers. Pods are light green, attractive, slightly incurved towards suture at the distal end and medium in size (about 8 cm) containing 6-7 seeds. The seeds are light green, dimpled bold and very sweet with high TSS (16.8%). Average yield 10 t/ha with 42% shelling.
  9. Jawahar Matar 3 (JM 3, Early December). This variety was developed at Jabalpur through hybridization of T19 x Early Badger followed by selections. Plant height 70-75 cm with bushy growth habit; flower colour white, pods light green, roundish-oval in shape with 4-5 wrinkled seeds. It gives high shelling percentage (45%). This variety suffers severely from powdery mildew. First picking starts at 50-55 days after sowing. Average yield 4 t/ha.
  10. Jawahar Matar 4 (JM 4). This variety was developed at Jabalpur through advanced generation selections from the cross T19 x Little Marvel. Plant height 65 cm, foliage and stem green. First picking can be taken after 70 days. Pods are green, medium in size (7 cm) with 6-7 green, wrinkled and sweet seeds. It is highly susceptible to powdery mildew. Average pod yield 7 t/ha with 40% shelling.
  11. Harbhajan (EC 33866). Developed at Jabalpur by selection from the exotic genetic stock. It is very early and first picking can be taken in 45 days of sowing. Plant type resembles that of field peas; pods are small with yellow, round and small seeds. It is also highly susceptible to powdery mildew disease. Average pod yield 3 t/ha.
  12. Pant Matar 2 (PM-2). It was developed at Pantnagar through pedigree selection from the cross Early Badger × IP3 (Pant Uphar). Plant height 50-55 cm; fruit setting starts from 6th node. Pods are green, relatively small in size with 6 sweet and wrinkled seeds. First picking starts 55 days after sowing. It is also highly susceptible to powdery mildew. Average pod yield 7-8 t/ha.
  13. Jawahar Peas 54 (JP 54). This powdery mildew resistant variety was developed at Jabalpur through advanced generation selection from a double cross (Arkel × JM5) × ('4bc' × JP 501). Plants are dwarf (45-50 cm) and vigorous, pods are big, incurred towards sutures (sickle shaped) and enclosing 8-9 big, wirnkled, greenish-yellow seeds. Average pod yield 7 t/ha.
  14. Matter Ageta 6. Dwarf, high yielding variety developed at Ludhinana through pedigree selction from the cross Massey Gem × Harabona. Plants are dwarf (40 cm), erect, vigorous and quick growing; foliage green and 1-2 pods are borne in a bunch; first picking within 43-45 days after sowing; pods are long with 6 seeds; it is tolerant to high temperature; average pod yield 6 t/ha with 44% shelling.
  15. Hisar Harit (PH1). This mid-early variety was developed at Hisar through bulk-pedigree method of selection from the cross Bonneville × P23. Plant semi dwarf, first picking after 60 days, foliage green; single to double podded; pod well filled and sickle shaped, large and green; seed green dimpled after drying. Average pod yield 9 t/ha.
  16. Jawahar Peas-4. This powdery mildew resistant and wilt tolerant variety for hillocks was developed at Jabalpur through advanced generation selections from a triple cross Local Yellow Batri × (6588 × 46C). Plants attain height of around 75 to 80 cm on hillocks and about 1 m in plants; medium size pods with 5-6 big, green seeds. First picking after 60 days in hillocks and 70 days I plains. Average pod yield 3-4 t/ha in hillocks and 9 t/ha in plains.

Other improved varieties developed were Harabora from Ludhiana, Pant Sabji Matar 3 from Pantnagar, etc.

Midseason varieties

            These are high yielding varieties capable of giving 3 pickings. The first picking can be done 90 days after sowing and the subsequent two at an interval of 15 days.

  1. Bonneville. It is an introduced variety from USA recommended for cultivation by IARI. It is a popular variety. Plant medium tall (60 cm), flowers are mostly borne in doubles; pods are light green, straight, big (9 cm) with 6-7 well-filled, sweet, bold and wrinkled seeds. It takes 65-70 days for first flowering and it appears in 13-15 th node. It is susceptible to powdery mildew disease. Average pod yield 9 t/ha with 45% shelling.
  2. Alderman. It is an introduced variety from USA. Plants are tall (150 cm); pods are more or less straight, big (9-10 cm) and borne singly with 8-10 very sweet,  shiny seeds. It is an excellent cultivar for freezing purpose.
  3. Perfection New Line. It is an introduced variety from USA. The plant is vigorous and medium tall and flowers are borne in doubles; pods are about 8 cm long, dark green with 6-7 light green, sweet and wrinkled seeds. First picking starts after 85 days. It is a heavy yielding variety. Average pod yield 10 t/ha.
  4. T 19. This medium tall and double podded variety has been developed by Department of Agriculture, U.P. The first blossom appears at 12-14th node after 60 days. Pods are yellowish green, slightly curved, 8.5 cm long with 6-7 wrinkled seeds with 45% shelling percentage.
  5. Lincon. An introduced variety from USA released at Katrian. Plants are medium tall; first blossom appears at 11-12th node. It is double podded and pods are dark green, curved, big (8-9 cm long) with 8-9 wrinkled seeds. First picking starts 85-90 days after sowing. It is a good canning purpose variety. Average pod yield 10t/ha.
  6. NP 29. This high yielding and wrinkled seeded plate variety was developed at IARI through selection. Plants are medium-tall with green foliage. First blossom appears at 14-16th node after 80 days from sowing. Pods are borne in double, green, straight, 7.5 cm long with 6-7 seeds. Shelling percentage 50. It is suitable for dehydration purpose.
  7. Jawahar Matar 1 (JM1 or GC 141). This variety was developed at Jabalpur through advanced generation selections from the cross of T19 × Greater Progress. Plant height 65-70 cm, bushy, foliage green, flower white with two flowers per axil. Pods are straight and big (8.8 cm) with 8-9 big, sweet and wrinkled seeds. It is susceptible to powdery mildew disease. Average pod yield 12 t/ha with 52% shelling.
  8. Jawsahar Matar 2 (JM 2). The variety was developed at Jabalpur through advanced generation selection from the cross of two exotic lines Greater Progress × Russian-2. Pods are dark green, big, curved with 8-10 sweet seeds. Seeds are wrinkled, green and bigger in size. It is susceptible to powdery mildew.
  9. VL-Matar-3. This variety was developed at Almora through pedigree selection from the cross Old Sugar × Early Wrinkled Dwarf 2-2-1. Plant height 67 cm, determinate in habit with light green foliage, white flower and bear two pods in a bunch; pods are light green, 6.8 cm long, straight with 5 wrinkled seeds. Tolerant to powdery mildew and wilt; first picking starts 100 days after sowing. Average pod yield 10 t/ha with 46% shelling.
  10. Pant Uphar (IP-3). This variety was developed at Pantnagar through selection. Pant height 70-75 cm with relatively thin leaflets of light green in colour; flower white and two buds are borne per axil; pods are round and 7-8 cm in length with yellowish and wrinkled seeds. First picking starts 75 to 80 days after sowing. Susceptible to powdery mildew disease, but tolerant against pea stem fly. Average pod yield 10 t/ha with 52% shelling.
  11. Punjab 88 (P-88). This variety was developed at Ludhiana through selections from the hybrid progeny of the cross Pusa02 × Morrasis-55. Plants are dwarf, vigorous, erect with dark green foliage; one or two flowers per axil. Flowering after 75 days and first picking after 100 days of sowing. Pods are dark green, long (8-10 cm) and slightly curved at centre with 7-8 green, wrinkled and less sweet seeds. Highly susceptible to powdery mildew disease. Average yield 15 t/ha with 47% of shelling.
  12. Azad P-2. A powdery mildew resistant variety developed at Kalyanpur through advanced generation selection from the cross Bonneville × 6587. Plants are tall (130-150 cm0, erect with light green foliage and white flowers. Pods are medium in size, light green, straight, smooth, firm borne in cluster of two with 6-7 wrinkled and brownish seeds. Crop duration 90-95 days. Average yield 12t/ha.
  13. Vivek-6 (VL Matar-6). Developed at Almora through hybridization of Pant Uphar × VL Matar-3 and subsequent selections in advanced generations. Plants are dwarf, vigorous in advanced generations. Plants are dwarf, vigorous with dark green foliage and white flowers. Pods are light green, straight, medium sized (6-7 cm) and completely filled with 6 semi-wrinkled seeds of greenish white in colour. First picking starts 125-130 days after sowing. It is moderately tolerant to cold and moisture stress. Average yield 10-11 t/ha.
  14. Ooty-1. Developed at Udhagamandalam through pure line selection from the accession PS 33. It is a dwarf type having yield potential of 11.9 t/ha in 90 days crop duration. It is resistant to white fly.
  15. Jawahar Pea 83 (JP 83). This powdery mildew resistant variety was developed at Jabalpur through advanced generation selection the double cross (JMI × JP 829) × (46 c × JP 501). Plants are dwarf (50 cm), pods are big and curved with 8 big, green and sweet seeds. Average pod yield 12-13 t/ha.
  16. Jawahar Peas 15 (JP 15). This duel resistant (powdery mildew and fusarium wilt) variety was developed at Jabalpur through advanced generation selections from the triple cross (JMI × R 98 B) × JP 501 A/2. Plants are dwarf (50 cm), having compact internodes and bigger pods containing 8 seeds. Average pod yield 13 t/ha.

            Other improved varieties developed were NDVP-8 and NDVP-10 from Faizabad, VL-8 from Almora, Punjab 87 from Ludhiana, Arka Ajit (resistant to powdery mildew and rust and development by crossing Bonneville to the resistant lines followed by back crossing to Bonneville and subsequent selections ) from IIHR, etc.

Edible podded variety (snow pea or sugar pea or snap pea)

Whole pods of this type can be eaten as the pod walls contain less fibre and high sugar.

  1. Sylvia. It is an introduced variety from Sweden. Plants are tall; first blossom appears at 14th to 16th node after 60 days of sowing. Pods are borne singly, yeelowish in colour, long (12 cm) and curved without parchment type pericarp. Pods are sweet and have general appearance of a medium sized French bean pod.
  2. UN 53 (3). Developed at IIHR which gives 8-9 t pod yield per hectare in a crop duration of 90 days. 

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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.