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Storage of Groundnut

http://www.vasat.icrisat.org/?q=node/190

Storing Of Groundnut

 

 

Groundnuts are semi-perishable and are subject to quality losses during storage through

  • insect and rodent infestation,
  • fungal development,
  • flavor changes,
  • rancidity,
  • viability loss,
  • physical changes like shrinkage, weight loss, etc.
Groundnut storage

High moisture and temperature regulates the rate of deterioration of kernels in storage.
During shelling serious losses in milling quality may result, if groundnut kernels are dried below 7% moisture content (on weight basis) or stored at a temperature less then 7°C.
Best storage conditions for normal dry bulk storage of unshelled groundnuts is about 7.5% kernel moisture content at 10°C and 65% relative humidity i.e. moisture in the surrounding air.
If such storage conditions are maintained, unshelled groundnuts can be stored without significant loss in quality for about 10 months.
Some groundnut varieties have been noted to have poor storability.

 

For example, in Gujarat cultivar GG 2 loses its viability rapidly than any other cultivar.
The methods of cultivation, harvesting, curing, and post-harvest handling of the groundnuts may affect their storability.

 

Factors known to accelerate the ageing process during storage are:

  • High soil moisture content during pod development, and harvest stage;
  • High temperatures (>40° C) during curing of pods,
  • High relative humidity (>80%) during storage.

Conditions for good storage of groundnut are:

  • Groundnuts always should be stored as pods rather than as kernels.
  • Pods should be well dried to have not more than 5% moisture.
  • If storage is done as kernels, pods should be decorticated carefully to avoid splits and broken kernels. The period of storage should be reduced to the minimum possible.

Smallholder farmers store groundnut as pods, in earthen pots, mud bins, bamboo baskets or in other types of receptacles. Such containers are often plastered with mud and cow dung with little or no use of pesticides.

For long-term storage the containers are sealed with mud after the addition of ashes, ground pepper, dried neem leaves or other local herbs to control storage pests.The summer crop of groundnut is harvested in the month of May to June. When this produce is stored, the relative humidity increases up to 80 to 90% with the onset of monsoon in the month of June to July. Consequently the pod moisture also increases to 10 to 15%.
Pod moisture percent over10% will affect seed viability and quality.

 

 

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