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Rice : Genreral Account & Package of Practice for Production

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General Account

The area under rice production is 45.35 million hactares in india.

India accounts for 20.3% of the world production.

The annual production of rice in india is 99.15 million tonnes.

Rice production in india is concentrated in the southern and eastern states.i.e. bihar, west Bengal, Assam, Orrisa, Uttar pradesh, Madhya pradesh, AP, TN, Kerala.


Area comprising the gangetic plains below the foot hills of himalaya across North-East India Burma, Northern Thialand, Loas, Vietnam and South China.


CLASSIFICATION Indica , Japonica and Javanica





Type of grain

Awnless grain

May be awned or awnless grain

Awned grains


Long grains without stickness

Oval and round Short grain with unique stickness

Long panicle

Long duration

Low sensivity to daylenght

Sparse tillering habit


Slightly pubescent and pale green in colour

Narrow and dark green in colour

Stiff straw






Oryza Sativa - O. indica, O. japonica and O. javanica.

All indian varieties belongs to O. indica race.



Rice grain is a caryopsis.

Proteinis confined to the aleurone layer and is about 7-8%.

Rice is essentially a Short Day Plant.

Yield of Rabi crop is more than Kharif crop.


SEASONS AND ZONESAus, Aman and boro

Local name (As a/c 2 harvesting time)

Crop season

Sowing time

Harvesting time.

Aus ( WB, BR )/autumn rice


May - June

Sept - Oct.

Aman or Aghani ( AI )/winter rice


June - July

Nov - Dec

Boro ( WB ) or Dalua ( OR )/Summer Rice

Summer or Spring

Nov - Dec

March - April


Two seasons - Kharif and rabi.

Zone - Middle, Upper and Trans Gangetic plains of India.

Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajsthan, Punjab, Haryana.

Soil - calcereous alluvial, riverine alluvium, saline and saline alkali soils.



Summer  March - july / August (Ziad)

(a) Common Varieties - N.C. 1626, N. 136, Pusa 2.21, C.R - 44-35, Vishnu

Autumn : May/June - September/october

(a) Early Varieties : Pusa 2.21, Black Gora, C.R. 44-35, Brown Gora,Bala.

(b) Medium Varieties :  Seeta, I.R. 8, Jaya, Archana.

Winter  : Rabi - November/December

(a) Well drained areas :  Mahsuri, B.R.34, I.R.20, B.R.I.

(b)Ill Drained and

©low lying area : B.R.8, T-141, B.R.1

(d)Deep water areas : B.R.46, Jassuria

(e) Scented Varieties : Tulsimanjari, B.R. 43


·         RICE CULTURE

Three main methods are mainly followed in rice cultivation.

·         Dry system

With the onset of monsoon showers, the seeds are sown either by broadcasting or better by drilling in lines using the recommended variety and seed rate.

·         Semi-dry system

Crop is raised same as dry system but at the age of 1.5 - 2 months the rain water  form the tank is impounded in the field and thus making it wet land crop.

·         Wet system

Water is required right from the beginning. The land is ploughed and puddled in standing water.

Puddling helps in getting a soft, level field which is conductive to the establishment of a good paddy crop.



·         Establishment of the optimum plant population.

·         Seedlings are able to establish themselves faster.

·         They start early tillering and growth.

·         Weeding becomes easy and economical.

·         Plant protection measures cn be effectively adopted as crops are planted in stripe and there is walking space of 30 cm between each stripe.   


Seeds and sowing

·         Seed Treatment

·         Salt treatment - seeds should be put in common salt solution (1.06 specific gravity) and lighter seeds that float should be discarded.

·         Agrosan @ 100 g per 50 Kg of seeds to prevent seed borne disease.

·         Ceresan WP (0.1%) - soaking of seeds for 12 Hours then dried in shade for prevention of seed borne seeds.

·         Incubation

Treated seeds should in clean water for 12 hours and then drained for 12 hours and incubated in warm, moist place for 24 hours covered with gunnies to enable them to sprout before sowing in the nursury.

·         In some places incubation for 48 hours in cold weather.









Prep time

Wet bed method

500 - 1000m2

20 - 25 DAS

Dry bed method

500 m2

20 - 25 DAS

Dapog method

25 - 30 m2

11 - 14 DAS

Wet Nursery

·         Area - 10% of transplanting area.

·         Two ploughing in dry conditions

·         Puddling in standing water - 2-3 times.

·         FYM/Compost/Green Manure @ 5-8 tonnes / ha. DAP @1 Kg / bed.

·         Sprouted seeds are broadcasted uniformly on a thin film of water.

Dry nursery

·         Necessary in water constraints condition.

·         Seeds are sown uniformly on the bed, covered with a thin layer of soil/compost.

·         The beds are sprinkled with water as often as necessary to keep them moist.

Dapog nursery

·         Where early tansplanting is desired after a delayed receipt of water, this method is adopted.

·         Seedlings are ready in 14 days only.

·         Germinated seeds are sown on surface of banana leaves or plastic sheets @ 1Kg per m2.

·         Germinating seeds are sprinkled with water every day.

·         After transplanting, the water level should be controlled at a safe level to avoid adverse effect on young seedlings.


·         4-5 leaf stage are ready for transplanting.

·         2-3 seedlings are planted at 20 10 cm or 20 15 cmspacing.

·         Depth of planting - 2 -3 cm.


Sowing of sprouted seeds directly on the puddled soil of the main field.

·         Reasons

·         Traditional practice was time consuming and labour intensive.

·         Expension of irrigated areas, availability of short duration rice cultivers, Cost efficient herbicides, increasing cost of transplanting and declining margin of profit have forced many farmers to shift to direct seeding.

·         Practices

·         Pregerminated seeds soaked in water for 12 hours and incubated for 24 hours are to be broadcasted evenally in a well levelled paddy field with no water stagnation.

·         "Drum seeder" - used to sow pregerminated seeds in the puddled soil.

Advantages of Drum seeder

·         Sowing in lines

·         Less seed rate (80 kg /ha),

·         Optimum plant stand,

·         Easy intercultural operations

·         Less labour requirement.

·         Higher production as compared to the traditional method.


·         Done three weeks after transplanting.

·         Hand weeding, rotary weeders and chemical weedicides can be used.


Water Requirement - 90- 190cm.

Disease and pest of rice



Stem borer

"Dead heart' and White Head"

Gall Midge

"Silvery shoot or onion Leaf symptoms"

Rice Hispa

"White streaks on leaves"

Leaf roller

Leaf folding and causing typical white streak

Army worm or Earhead cutting caterpillar

Skeletonisinf of leaf blades and cut panicles at night.

Gundhi bug

Sucks milky juice of developing grains.

Green leaf hoppers

Transmits " Tungro virus"

Brown plant hoppers and white backed

Causes "Hopper Burn" and transmits "Grassy Stunt Virus Diseases"










Diseases of Rice




Pyricularia oryzae

                       Brown spot

Cochliobolous miyabeanus

( Helminthosporium oryzae)

                                                Stem rot

Leptosphaeria  salvinii

                                                False smut

Claviceps oryzae - sativae

                                                Sheath blight

Corticium sasakii

                       Bacterial leaf blight

(Kresek Pase)

Xanthomonas oryzae

                       Bacterial leaf streak

Xanthomonas translucens f.sp. oryzicola

                       Tungro virus

Vector - rice green leaf hoppers

9.Khaira disease

Zinc deficiency

              Akiochi disease

Hydrogen sulfide toxicity


Milling of Rice

1.           White rice

White rice is the name given to milled rice that has had its husk, bran, and germ removed. This alters the flavour, texture and appearance of the rice and helps prevent spoilage and extend its storage life. After milling, the rice is polished, resulting in a seed with a bright, white, shiny appearance.

2.           Brown rice

Brown rice (or "hulled rice") is unmilled or partly milled rice, a kind of whole, natural grain. It has a mild nutty flavor, is chewier and more nutritious than white rice, but goes rancid more quickly because the germ—which is removed to make white rice—contains fats that can spoil.

3.           Red rice

Red rice may refer to:

·         Red rice, also known as weedy rice, a low-yielding rice variety that persists as a weed in fields of better-quality rice.


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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.