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Rice Ecosystems

Rice Ecosystems

Rice farming is practiced in several agro ecological zones in India. No other country in the world has such diversity in rice ecosystems than India. Because cultivation is so widespread, development of four distinct types of ecosystems has occurred in India, such as:

  • Irrigated Rice Eco System
  • Rainfed Upland Rice Eco System
  • Rainfed Lowland Rice Eco System
  • Flood Prone Rice Eco System

Irrigated Rice Eco System

  • Irrigated ecosystems are the primary type found in East Asia.
  • Irrigated ecosystems provide 75% of global rice production.
  • In India, the total area under irrigated rice is about 22.00 million hectares, which accounts about 49.5% of the total area under rice crop in the country.
  • Rice is grown under irrigated conditions in the states of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Sikkim, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh and Gujarat.
  • Irrigated rice is grown in bunded (embanked), paddy fields.

Rainfed Upland Rice Eco System

  • Upland zones are found in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
  • In India, the total area under upland rain fed rice in the country is about 6.00 million hectares, which accounts13.5% of the total area under rice crop in the country.
  • Upland rice areas lies in eastern zone comprising of Assam, Bihar, Eastern M.P., Orissa, Eastern U.P., West Bengal and North-Eastern Hill region.
  • Upland rice fields are generally dry, unbunded, and directly seeded.
  • Land utilized in upland rice production can be low lying, drought-prone, rolling, or steep sloping.

Rainfed Lowland Rice Eco System

  • Rainfed low-land rice is grown in such areas as East India, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Philippines, and Thailand, and is 25% of total rice area used worldwide.
  • In India, low land rice area is about 14.4 million hectares, which accounts 32.4 % of the total area under rice crop in the country.
  • Production is variable because of the lack of technology used in rice production.
  • Rainfed lowland farmers are typically challenged by poor soil quality, drought/flood conditions, and erratic yields

Flood Prone Rice Eco System

Flood-prone ecosystems are prevalent in South and Southeast Asia, and are characterized by periods of extreme flooding and drought. Yields are low and variable. Flooding occurs during the wet season from June to November, and rice varieties are chosen for their level of tolerance to submersion.

Rice ecosystems in India represent 24% of irrigated areas, 34% of rainfed lowlands, 26% of flood-prone areas and 37% of rainfed uplands cultivated to rice in the entire world

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