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Rice based cropping systems

 Cropping systems

 

Rice based cropping systems in India

In rice growing areas several crop combinations (cropping systems) are in practice based on agro-ecological conditions, market and domestic needs and facilities available with farmers, some of the most prominent ones are being discussed under:

 

1. Mixed varietal cropping of rice. System of mixing seed of early rice (ahu) with late maturing deep water rice (bao) is being practices in West Bengal to avoid total crop loss at the event of flood. The seed of both the types of mixed in 1:1 ratio and has given higher yield than sole cropping of either type. Similarly growing of a mixture of autum and winter varieties in 3:1 ratio in Tamil Nadu (known as udo) and Kerala (called as koottumundkan) is very much in practice. However, under normal conditions it has created problems in performing agricultural operations like harvesting, deciding fertilizer doses etc.

 

2. Intercropping rice with other crops. It is a common practice under upland conditions in north and north-eastern part of the country to grow rice intercropped with black gram, green gram, sesame, maize, finger millet or other miner millets. The ratio of rice and inter crop is preferred to be 3-4:1.

 

3. Relay/paira/utera cropping. The seed of succeeding crops like lentil, gram, pea, lathyrus, berseem, linseed etc. is sown broadcast in maturing rice crop. This practice saves time; money (to be spent on land preparation etc.) utilizes residual fertility. This practice is common in both upland and lowland rice culture.

 

4. Sequential cropping in rice. Sequential cropping refers to the crops grown as preceding or succeeding with rice as shown below;

       Irrigated conditions                                               under upland

       Rice-Rice-Rice                                                       Rice-Chickpea

       Rice-Rice-Cereal                                                     Rice-Lentil

       Rice-Rice-Pulses                                         Rice-Mustard/Linseed

       Rice-Wheat-Pulse                                                   Rice-Barley

       Rice-Toria- Wheat                                                  Rice – Wheat

       Rice – Wheat                                                          Rice – Wheat

       Rice – Mustard                                                      Rice – Pea

5. Rice under integrated farming system

Rice-Fish-Poultry

Rice-Fish-Duckery

 

In North India where irrigation facilities exist, a number of cropping systems of crops involving rice are feasible. After harvest of rice, crops like potato, berseem, toria etc., can be sown and will fit very well in intensive crop rotations. In rainfed areas too, where the soils are well drained and have good moisture retention capacity, legume crops like chickpea, lentil could be grown s

 

Dynamics of rice-based cropping systems in the southern transitional zone of Karnataka

 

Table 1: Changing area under rice (ha) from 1985-86 to 1996-97

 

Taluk

1985-86

1989-90

1991-92

1996-97

Change over 1985-86 (%)

Alur

5,469

7,176

6,455

7,664

+40.1

Arakalgud

5,790

5,666

9,170

12,496

+115.8

Belur

9,815

7,600

8,410

7,359

-25.0

Bhadravathi

25,212

34,800

17,092

24,424

-3.1

Channagiri

14,328

15,300

13,968

23,332

+62.8

Hassan

3,664

6,538

4,532

2,251

-38.6

H.D. Kote

8,429

6,591

4,715

7,590

-9.9

Honnali

12,443

16,300

12,701

16,295

+30.9

H.N.Pura

5,771

8,006

9,954

8,924

+54.6

Hunsur

5,710

6,408

7,967

9,580

+67.8

Periyapatna

2,942

4,375

3,470

3,364

+14.3

Shikaripur

22,918

19,800

21,221

21,106

-7.9

Shimoga

20,410

20,800

22,186

17,326

-15.1

Tarikere

11,159

10,586

9,582

7,543

-32.4

Total

154,060

169,946

151,1423

169,254

+9.8

 

 

Table 2: Comparison of areas (in 000 ha) under rice-based cropping systems

 

System

1985-86

1996-97

Change in area (%)

Rice-rice

67.2

59.6

-7.6

Rice-groundnut

17.1

18.9

+1.8

Rice-pulses

0.7

11.3

+10.6

Rice-fallow

0.4

12.8

+12.4

Rice-vegetables

0.8

4.5

+3.5

Rice-maize

0.6

2.5

+1.9

Total

86.8

109.6

+22.6

Additional summer rice area

67.2

59.6

-7.6

Total rice area

154.0

169.2

+9.4

 

Source: Diagnostic sample survey in 14 taluks (140 villages, 700 farmers) of the southern transition zone of Karnataka

 

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