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Promotion of IPM in Vegetables

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Promotion of IPM in Vegetables: Need of the Hour

Dr. Deepali Tewari, GBPUAT




" Integrated Pest Management is a management system, that in the context of associated environment and population dynamics of pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in such a compatible manner as possible and maintains pest population at levels below those causing economic injury:"


A vegetable, being a good source of vitamins, proteins, minerals, carbohydrates and fibers, also called protective food, forms an integral part of human diet. As far as production is concerned, we are no. two in the world after China. But, as a matter of fact, in terms of productivity and subsequently for per capita availability, we are still lagging behind many countries of the world. Per capita availability of vegetables is 210-gm/ capita/ day against 300-gm/capita/day recommended by ICMR. There is urgent need to increase the productivity of vegetables in our country to feed the increasing population. One of the major constraints in increasing vegetable production is loss caused by vegetable pests. Insect pests are responsible for reducing 40% of the total yield of vegetables.


IPM in vegetables:


In vegetables, insect pests cause great loss, this is well reflected by Table1 given below:


Table1: Losses caused by insect-pest.



Name of crop

Name of the pest

Losses caused



Fruit borer






Shoot and fruit borer




Shoot and fruit borer



Cole  crops

Diamond black moth




Cabbage borer




Fruit fly




Considering the above facts, it is must to control vegetable pests. Due to the easy accessibility and confirm action against pest, farmers prefer to use chemicals to control the pest population. We consume 13-14% of total pesticides to control pest in vegetables against 2.6% of cropped area of vegetables. This excessive and uncontrolled use of chemicals is not only leading to destruction of natural enemies but also risky, as vegetables are prone to retain pesticide residues.

The indiscriminant use of chemicals is not desirable in vegetables as these are harvested in shorter interval and waiting period can not  increased due to perishable nature of vegetables. All these complexities should be kept in the mind when we plan "IPM strategy" for vegetables.


Basic principles involved in IPM:


  1. Prevention:  It includes selection of well planned crop rotation, cropping pattern, use of resistant material, use of optimum / recommended agronomic practices, population habitat management, use of trap crop and inter cropping to avoid the occurrence.
  2. Observation: Under this principle, we go for crop monitoring for occurrence and intensity of pest to develop decision support system and area wise management.
  3. Intervention: This includes direct measures adopted to control the pest, like Economic Threshold Level and accordingly use of cultural biological and optimum chemical method to control the pest.


Strategies for IPM in vegetables:


  • Cultural methods: The activities under this methods are:

(a)   Use of resistant varieties: Some of less susceptible varieties of vegetables are:






Shoot and fruit borer, Aphid, Jassid, Thrips and

 white fly

SM 17-4, Punjab Neelam and Pusa Purple Round

Kalyanpur-2, Punjab Chamakila, Gote-2 GB-1 and GB-6.



All Season, Red Drum Head, Sure Head, and Express Mail.


Stem borer

Early Patna, EMS-3, KW_5, KW-8 and Kathmandu Local.



IC-7194, IC-13999 New Selection and Punjab Padmini.



PBR-2,PBR-6,Arka Niketan, and Pusa Ratnar.

Round gourd

Fruit fly

Arka Tinda


Fruit fly

Arka Suryamukhi


  • Manipulation in sowing time: By manipulating the sowing and planting dates of the crop to keep it away from most damaging stager of pest, losses can be managed below economic threshold level. Example:  Early planting of cucurbits in November, escapes the attack of Red Pumpkin Beetle.
  • Tillage of soil: Summer ploughing is an effective practice to spoil the soil inhibiting inactive stages of insect.  Deep ploughing of the field after the harvest reduces the activity of fruit fly, red pumpkin beetle and cut worm as these insects remain in the soil in earthen cocoon to complete the dormant stage of their life cycle.
  • Inter cropping:  As diverse nature of plant obstructs the life cycle of insect and obstructed conditions are unfavorable for further infestation.  Some inter crop combination effective in vegetable pest management are: Cabbage + Carrot against Diamond Black Moth, Okra + Cowpea against Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus
  • Trap Crop: Trap crop must be distinctly attractive to the pest than the main crop.  It provides protection either by preventing the pest from reaching the main crop or by concentrating them in certain part of the field where they can be economically destroyed.

 Example 1:


Trap Crop

Main Crop

Target Pest




Diamond Black Moth


Maize (applied with bait spray)

Bitter Gourd

Fruit Fly


Biological/ Microbial Control


Exploitation of natural enemies is very critical to IPM programme and it is being used very widely now- a -days by the farmers under IPM package.  These include

  1. Predators: Organisms which feed on other insects having body size greater or equal to the insect is called predators. Examples: Lady bird beetle feeds on aphids
  2. Parasites: Those insects whose larvae feed internally or externally on the body of other insect are called parasites. Examples: Trichogramma chilonis parasites egg of Helicoverpa armigera
  3. Pathogen: Microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and nematodes develop diseases to the pest and thus help in killing pest. This includes:

  • Bacteria: Example: B. thuringienesis - Used against diamond black borer, fruit and shoot borer of brinjal.
  • Virus : Example : HA-NPV - Used against tomato fruit borer
  • Fungus: Trichoderma harzianum - Used for seed treatment to control fungal disease.
  • Protozoa: Nosema fumiferae is being exploited for the management of spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana.
  • Nematodes: Foliar application of Steinernema carpocapsae against the leaf miner on groundnut, Spodoptera litura on sunflower, paddy cutwor

Microbial pesticides as a component of IPM are cheap, eco-friendly and compatible to natural enemies existing in the system.

Mechanical Control of Insect Pest:

Reduction of pest population by means of manual devices is called mechanical control. This includes :Hand picking of larvae(larvae of cutworm, leaf eating caterpillar etc), Beating with stick,( swarm of locust) Shaking the tree(adults of white grub), Sieving and winnowing(pests of stored grain), Rope dragging in field(Rice case worm larva pupating in case), Banding the trees(Mealy bugs),  Water as barrier(ants), Trenching the field(army worm, grasshoppers), Tin collars on stem(rat), Bagging the fruits(Fruit sucking moth)

Physical Control Of Insect Pest:

Reduction of pest population by using device which affect them physically or alter their physical environment. Manipulation of temperature, humidity, light is used for this purpose like Sun drying ,Disinfection of gowdowns ,Burning, Refrigeration, Use of light, Light traps, Use of pheromone trap, Hot water treatment etc.


Judicious selection of chemicals may sustain the IPM system

These insecticides should be judiciously used considering certain aspect like waiting period of chemical, economic threshold level and initiation of control measures through pheromone / light trap catches.

Safe Use of Chemical

Safe use of chemicals can be adopted in IPM.  For this Regular monitoring of crop for occurrence of pest, Economic Threshold Level and Judicious selection and use of  chemicals is important.                      

Following points should be given emphasis at the time of selection of chemicals to be used:

  • Vegetable with less picking interval should be sprayed with insecticide having less waiting period.
  • Chemicals like plant-origin insecticides and growth regulators can also be a part of IPM.  For eg. Neem products have shown efficacy against insects like jassids & borers of okra.
  • ETL based application schedule helps in maintaining minimum pest population & use of pesticides in such a manner that it does not affect survival of natural enemies.  ETL for some crops in some pests are given below :



Economic threshold level


Fruit borer

8 eggs/15 plants or 1 larvae/plant


P. xylostella


0.5 larvae/plant

0.3 egg mass/plant



4.46 nymph/plant

Source:  Sutiadi et al., (1994)


  • Last, but not the least, comparatively safe chemicals, should be taken into consideration for use if required after all practices are adopted.


Though IPM is quite popular and well-known term today but still we need to speed up the movement to save the earth and environment through this concept and this is possible by a thorough and well planned IPM strategy development and implementation of this at grass root level.

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The Farmer Field School (FFS)

The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a group-based learning process that has been used by a number of governments, NGOs and international agencies to promote Integrated Pest Management (IPM). The first FFS were designed and managed by the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation in Indonesia in 1989 since when more than two million farmers across Asia have participated in this type of learning.

Pests on Vegetables - Pheromone availability

For vegetables we have Pheromones for following pests

Plutella Xylostella

Spodoptera exigua - Chillies, Onion

Spodoptera litura

Helicoverpa armigera

Diaphania indica (coming soon in 1 month) - Cucurbit crops - Bitter, snake, bottle gourde, Gherkins

Leucinodes orbonalis - Brinjal

any body interested can contact

Pheromone Chemicals, 404, Arpitha Heights, St.No.1, HMT Nagar, Nacharam, Hyderabad - 500 076

Phone: 09440897918, 040-27176019,

visit our website:



You offer a TON amount of information on Integrated Pest Management. I run my companys pest control blog and write a lot about IPM on a residential home point of view.

Some examples are emilinateing stagnant water and sealing area son the outside of foundations.

I will continually read any new information you put up.



JP McHale Pest Management


Some examples

Some examples are emilinateing stagnant water and sealing area son the outside of foundations.

I think this is the best way

I think this is the best way to kill your all pest in your farm and in your place. It is a better pest control killer wherein it is also a environmental friendly. These are some procedure and tips on how we used pest control safety.

These are the procedures and

These are the procedures and maintainace for vegetables farmers. This is a strategy and tactics on how to prevent pest in our farms. I hope this methods in vegies famers will encourage and follow this action do able to stregthen their harvest.

This is a strategy

This is a strategy and tactics on how to prevent pest in our farms. I hope this methods in vegies famers will encourage and follow this action do able to stregthen their harvest.

Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.