Skip to main content

Production Technology For Rabi Pulses Under Dryland Agriculture In Maharashtra


In India important rabi pulses are chickpea, lentil, lathyrus, mungbean, urdbean, fababean etc. They are very much location specific depending on the dietary preference of the particular area or region.  Chickpea occupied maximum area of rabi pulses (8.4 lakh ha) producing 6.68 lakh tones, during 1998-99. The area and production statistics in India for rabi pulses in summarized in Table 1.

             The productivity of rabi pulses is very much dependent on the duration of winter.  Long winter is one of the reason to have better productivity in northern states than those in Central and Southern India. Under dry land agriculture the rabi crops are more dependent on nature for their moisture requirement; which is decided by climatic factor like rainfall, sunshine hours, humidity, temperature, rate of open pan evaporation etc.  In peninsular India, the winter is not very cool and the minimum temperature below 15oC is for very limited period.  Moreover, day temperature shoots up above 35oC much earlier (in February or so) in Southern part as compared to North Indian States.  Hence, the varietal requirement varies in different states.  In north, long duration varieties (above 135 days maturity) can do well, while in Centre and South short duration varieties of 90 to 110 days are more preferable. The varieties of major rabi pulses for different states are listed in Table 2.

 

            Land requirement : As the dry land crops are dependant on residual soil moisture without irrigation, the soils should have excellent water holding capacity with better drainage and rich in organic carbon.  Traditionally rabi lands were very much reserved by keeping them fallow in kharif following frequent tillage through harrowing which help water conservation and weed control.  However, now a days short duration kharif crops maturing before September end or early October (e.g. mung, udid soybean) are followed by rabi pulses.  Under such circumstances, it is very necessary that the kharif crop is weed free with better mulching for soil moisture conservation. Immediately after harvest of kharif crop, it is necessary to have harrowing to have better pulverized seed  bed without much loss of soil moisture for rabi pulses.

 

Sowing : Sowing of rabi pulses under dry land condition should synchronise better soil moisture availability. For this reason it is sown immediately after the land preparation (after harvest of short duration kharif crops. The optimum sowing time, seed rate, spacing for various rabi pulses are given in Table 3.  They are however adjusted as per the soils and climates of different regions and states.  In North-India prevailing cool, humid weather in November, permit the sowing of pulses as late as November end.  However, in Central & South India dry land rabi sowing is restricted earlier by mid October.

 

Care to maintain optimum plant stand:

 

a)         Check germination percentage and seed index of the seed available for sowing.                          Adjust the seed rate on germination and seed index, to maintain optimum plant               stand given in Table 3.

 

b)         Seed treatment with fungicide (e.g. thiram) at the rate of 3 g per kg seed should be undertaken  to  avoid  early  seedling mortality.  Now a days antogonist fungi viz., Trichoderma herzianum or T.viridi is found effective to control the early seedling mortality due to Rhizoctonia, Sclerotium or Fusarium. The culture of T.harzianum or T.viridi is now available and its seed treatment @ 5g/kg seed is equally effective to the fungicidal seed treatment. Use of carboxy-methyl-cellulose (CMC) @ 1g/kg seed as an adhesive, makes the treatment more effective.

 

c)         Levelled land with uniform steady slope and providing good drainage at prepara tory tillage avoids water logging due to untimely rains.  It is one of the major factor    to cause seedling mortality uncontrollable even by the fungicidal or antagonist’s seed treatment.

 

d)         Uniform drilling preferably through mechanical seeddrill ensures optimum  spacing  and plant stand.

 

e)         Timely weed control to keep the field weed free at least for 45 to 55 days from                         sowing ensures the better plant growth and plant population per unit area.

 

Interculture operations: These are dependent on the soil type and weed infestation.  The basic aims of interculture in dryland rabi pulses are the moisture conservation and weed control. It is therefore necessary to avoid hard crust of soil surface due to untimely rains and soil cracks due to dry and hot weather during the period upto 45 days from sowing.  Later the well developed crop canopy take care of both the factors i.e. moisture conservation and weed control.

 

Plant protection : Pod borer (Helicoverpa armigera) is a major pest of chickpea and also of other rabi pulses.  Integrated management approach against the pest is necessary.  It involve the management of insects to the lower level of infestation which does not cause economic damage to the crop, by using different practices, including cultural mechanical, biological and use of biopesticides ultimately reducing the use of chemical pesticides to the minimum possible extent.

 

Protective irrigation : Whenever possible under prolonged drought, protective irrigation to the rabi crops is very beneficial.  It has been observed that a single irrigation at flowering or pod development (whenever water stress prevails), improves the productivity by 30 per cent, while two irrigations (at both these stages) gives 52% yield advantage.

 

Harvesting, threshing and storage: Timely harvest of the crop to avoid shattering losses, need not be stressed.  The produce after threshing should be thoroughly dried to ensure seed moisture below 10% and stored at dry place.  The produce should be well protected against bruchids.

 

 

Table 1 : Area, production and productivity of rabi pulses in  India

 

Crop

Area lakh ha

Production lakh t

Average yield (kg/ha)

Chickpea

84.1

66.8

794

Lentil

13.4

8.6

641

Lathyrus

7.6

4.0

532

Pea

8.7

7.0

856

Mungbean

6.6

2.8

421

Urdbean

8.9

4.6

515

Drybean*@

10.7

4.0

375

 

* Source: Agril. Statistics at a glance, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Govt.     of    

   India, New Delhi.

@ FAO quarterly bulletin on statistics 11(1), 1998 (Figures for 1997)

 


 

 

Table 2 : Notified varieties of major rabi pulses in India

 

Year                             Variety                                     Area of adoption

 

CHICKPEA

1948                            Chaffa                                      Maharashtra

1958                            CO 1                                       Tamil Nadu

 

1970                            RS 10                                      Rajastan

                                    RS 11                                      Rajastan

 

1973                            C 235                                      North Western Plain Zone (NWPZ)

                                    G 130                                      Punjab

                                    G 24                                        Punjab

                                    S 26                                         Punjab

                                    Pb 7                                         Punjab

 

1974                            T 3                                           Punjab and U.P.

1976                            T 87                                         U.P.

                                    C 214                                      Punjab and Haryana

                                    L 144 (Kabuli)                         Haryana

 

1978                            L 550 (Kabuli)                         NWPZ, NEPZ, CS and NHZ

                                    H 355                                      Haryana and M.P.

                                    Hare Chole No.1                      Punjab

                                    Annegiri                                    Southern Zone

                                    Jyothi                                       A.P.

 

1980                            Pusa 209                                  NWPZ and NEPZ

 

1982                            Redhey                                     U.P., M.P. and Assam

                                    K 468                                      U.P.

                                    K 850                                      U.P.

                                    GL 769                                    Punjab

                                    Pant G 114                               U.P. and NEPZ

                                    Mahamaya 1 (B 108)  West Bantal

                                    Chaffa                                      Maharashtra, Gujarat and Karnataka

                                    BDN 9-3                                 Maharashtra, A.P. and Karnataka

                                    JG 62                                       M.P.

                                    Dahod Yellow                          Dujarat and Rajasthan

                                    Warangal                                  Maharashtra

                                    No. 59                                     Maharashtra

                                    No. 31                                     Maharashtra

                                    CO 2                                       Tamil Nadu

 

Table 2 Contined

 

Year                             Variety                                     Area of adoption

 

1983                            Vikas (Phule G 1)                     Maharashtra

                                    Pusa 212                                  Central Zone

                                    Gwalior 2                                 M.P.

                                    Ujjain 21                                  M.P.

1984                            GNG 16                                   Rajasthan

                                    Kiran (RSG 2)            Rajasthan

                                    Mahamaya 2 (B 115) West Bangal

                                    Ujjain 24                                  M.P.

                                    JG 315                                     Central Zone

                                    JG 5 (Kabuli)                           M.P.

1985                            Gaurav (H 75-35)                    NWH and NWPZ

                                    GNG 146                                 NWPZ

                                    Pusa 256                                  NWPZ and NEPZ

                                    Pusa 408                                  NWPZ

                                    Pusa 261                                  NWPZ

                                    Pusa 240                                  NWPZ

                                    Pusa 413                                  NWPZ

                                    ICCC 4                                    Gujarat and A.P.

                                    Pusa 244                                  Central Zone

 

1986                            Vishwas (Phule G 5)   Central Zone

1987                            Avrodhi                                    U.P.

 

1988                            PBG 1                                      NWPZ

                                    Pusa 267 (Kabuli)                    NWPZ

                                    Gora Hisari                               Haryana

 

1990                            Haryana Chana No.1                NWPZ

                                    (H 82-2)

                                    Phule G 12                               Maharashtra

 

1991                            JG 74                                       NEH, West Bengal, Assam, M.P.

                                    RSG 44                                    Rajasthan

1992                            Udav (KPG 59)                       NWPZ and NEPZ

                                    Bharti (ICCV 10)                     Central Zone and Southern Zone

                                    Sada Bahar                              U.P.

1993                            Pusa 329                                  NWPZ

                                    Pusa 372                                  NWPZ and NEPZ

                                    ICCV-2                                   Maharashtra

                                    Phule G 81-1-1                        Central Zone

                                    (Vijay)

 

Table 2 Contined

 

Year                             Variety                                     Area of adoption

1994                            Pusa 362                                  NWPZ

                                    GF 89-36                                 NWPZ

                                    GNG 633                                 NWPZ

 

1996                            KWR 108                                NEPZ

                                    Pusa 391                                  CZ

                                    GNG 469                                 NWPZ

                                    JG 218                                     M.P.

                                    Phule G 87207 (Vishal)          Maharashtra

                                    BG 1003                                  Identified : NEPZ

                                    DCP 92-3                                Identified : NEPZ

1997                            KGD 1168                               NWPZ

                                    PDR 3                                      Punjab

                                    Pant G 186                               U.P.

 

1999                            Pusa 1003 (Kabuli)                  NEPZ

                                    JG-11                                      SZ

                                    Gujrat Gram-1                          CZ

                                    BGD 72                                   CZ

                                    CO3                                        Tamilnadu

                                    CO4                                        Tamilnadu

                                   

JG-322                                                MP

WCG-2 (Surya)                       U.P.

JGG-1 (Gulabi)                        M.P.

L-551 (Kabuli)             Punjab

BG-1053 (Kabuli)                    NWPZ

 

2000                            JAKI-9218                              CZ

                                    KAK-2 (Kabuli)                      CZ

                                    GCP-105                                 NEPZ 

2002                            SAKI 9516                              CZ

 

Table 2 Contined

Year                             Variety                                     Area of adoption

           

FIELDPEA

1984*                          DMR 11                                  NHZ, NWPZ, NEPZ, CZ

1987                            RP 3                                        Rajasthan

1987                            Pant P 5                                   NWPZ

1988                            HUP 2 (Malviya Matar 2)         NEPZ

1992                            JP 885                                     CZ

1988                            HFP 4 (Aparna)                       NWPZ

1993                            KFP 103                                  NWPZ

1995                            DMR 7 (Alankar)                     NWPZ

1995*                          DDR 13                                   NEPZ & CZ

1995*                          HFP 8909                                NWPZ

1995*                          KPMR 144-1                          CZ

 

1996                            Swati (KFPD-24)                    NWPZ

                                    Malviya Matar-15 (HUDP-15)   NEPZ

                                    Pusa prabhat (DDR-23)             NEPZ

LENTIL

 

1984*                          PL 77-2                                   NEPZ

1986                            K-75 (Malika)                          NEPZ & CZ

1993                            L 4076                                     NWPZ & CZ

                                    Lens 4076                                NWP & CZ

1988*                          Sehore 74-3                             CZ

1991                            LH 84-8 (Sapna)                      NWPZ

1990*                          WBL 58                                   EZ

1993                            PL 81-17 (PL 4)                      NWPZ

1995                            DPL 15 (Priya)                         NWPZ

1994*                          KL 133                                    NEPZ

1995*                          L 4147                                     NWPZS

1996*                          DPL 32                                    NEPZ

1997                            DPL 62 (Sheri)             MWPZ

1999                            JL-3 (SLC-6)                           CZ

2000                            IPL-81 (Noori)                        CZ

 

RAJMA

 

1987                            PDR-14 (Uday)                       NEPZ

1989                            HUR-15                                   NEPZ

                                    (Malviya rajmash 15)

1991                            HUR-137                                 NEPQ

                                    (Malviya rajmash 137)

 

Rabi Mungbean

 

1995                            Pusa 9072                                SZ

1995*                          TARM-1                                  CZ & SZ

1992                            TARM-2                                  Eaxtern Vidarbha

 

Spring/Summer mung

 

1987                            PDM-11                                  CZ

                                    PDM54                                    NEPZ

1990                            PDM 84-143 (Basanti) NEPZ

1992                            PDM 84-139 (Samrat)             NEPZ (Summer)

1993                            MH 88-111 (Basant)                NWPZ (Spring)

1998                            Pusa 9531                                NWPZ (Spring)

                                                                                    CZ (Summer)

1999                            HUM-1                                    CZ (Spring)

2000                            Pusa 105                                  CZ (Summer)

                                    Pusa Vishal                               NWPZ (Spring + Summer)

Rabi urdbean

1991                            LBG-17 (Krishnayya)               SZ

1991                            LBG-402 (Prabhava)               SZ

1994                            Melghat (AKU-4)                    Eastern Vidarbha

1997                            TU 94-2                                   SZ

1998                            KU 301                                   SZ

 

Spring/Summer Urdbean

 

1991                            PDU-1 (Basant bahar)              NWP, NEP, CZ (Spring)

1999                            KU 92-1                                  NEPZ (Spring)

————————————————————————————————

 

* Year of identification by AICRP on Pulses

 


 

Table 3 : Production practices for rabi pulses

 

Crop                Basal                    Sowing    Spacing    Average  Standard            Seed rate

                        fertilizer                 time         (cm)         plant       100 seed             on the         

                        (N-P-K)                                                stand       weight              standard

                        (kg/ha)                                                 per ha           (g)            seed index                                      

                                                                                    in lakh      

Chickpea

 

Rainfed             20-40-0           25 Sept.    30x10         3.33         14-16              50-60                     

                                                to 30th Oct.

Irrigated           25-50-0           20 Oct.      30x10         3.33         14-16              50-60

                                                to 30thNov.

 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Fieldpea          60-60-0           15 Oct.      30x10         3.33         18-22              70-80

                        to 30thNov.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Lentil               

Drilled              20-40-0           15 Oct.   22.5x10         4.44          Bold                 8-10                           

                                                to 30th                                        kernel types                                

                                                   Nov.                                      2.5to2.8

                                                                                                   Small                   6-8               

                                                                                                   kernel types

                                                                                                  1.8-2.0             

 

Utera     - - -                            Sept. to                        5.50        1.8-2.0             15-20                     

                                                Oct.     Broadcast      

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Rabi mung and udid

 

Drilled              20-40-0           Nov. to     30x10          3.33        3.0-3.5            10-12   

                                                Dec.

Utera     - - -                            Sept. to                        5.50        3.0-3.5            20-25                     

                                                Oct.      Broadcast

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Rajma             90-60-30         October    30x10          3.00        28-30             120-140 

                                                end to  November                                 

* Seed rate should be adjusted according to seed size, germination percentage and desired    spacing.


 

Table 4:  Production and availability of pulses in India

 

 

Plan                     Production               Availability              

                             million t)                  (g/adult/day)

 

 

I                           11.7                               64.6

 

II                          12.7                               68.5

 

III                           9.9                               60.5

 

IV                          10.0                               47.7

 

V                            12.2                               43.9

 

VI                           11.8                               39.0

 

VII                         12.6                               40.0

————————————————————————————————

0
Your rating: None Average: 4 (1 vote)

Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.