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Pests and their management

The paddy gall-fly or gall midge is found in most of the paddy growing areas in the southern and eastern parts of India. In Karnataka, the infestation is noticed in seed beds and 30 – 40 days old transplanted crop in Karavali and Malnad areas (High rainfall areas).

Paddy Gall-Midge: Orseolia oryzae Wood - Mason (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

Kannada name: Kane

Vernacular name: Aane kombu

In Karnataka infestation is noticed in seed beds and 30 - 40 days old transplanted crop in Karavali and Malnad areas (High rainfall areas).

Period of occurrence:  Seedling to Panicle Initiation stage

Extent of yield loss: 50 %

Alternate hosts: Wild rice, such as Oryza rufipogon are common alternate hosts

Damaging stage of the insect: Maggot

Factors favouring insect damage:

  • Cloudy or rainy weather, cultivation of high-tillering varieties,Damage:
  • The maggot feed on the apical point of the central shoot.
  • Maximum infestation occurs during tillering stage of the crop.
  • Once panicle initiation occurs, larvae no longer cause damage.
  • The infected tiller becomes abnormal and silvery in color.

Adult gall midge

Life cycle: 15 - 23 days


 Affected palnt
 Egg  pupa

Damage symptoms

Eggs: It lays up to 250 eggs singly or in clusters either on leaves or stems.                

Incubation period: 1-3 days.

Maggots: The maggots are reddish or yellowish, enter into growing point and damage by laceration.

Adult: Adult is a small delicate fly, resembling mosquitoes; body is bright red or yellowish brown with long legs. Female has bright orange- red abdomen while male is dark in colour.

Symptoms of damage:

  • The infested central shoot is converted to long tubular structure known as galls or silver shoots. It resembles as an onion leaf glistens in the field.
  • Profuse tillering and stunting of plants
  • Infested tillers do not produce panicles
  • In some cases there would be no gall development but necrosis of the growing tip is noticed.
  • Elongated tubular gall is produced in place of shoot. Hence it is called "Silver shoot "or 'Anekombu' or 'Kane'.

Preventive measures:

  • Use of Use of resistant varieties Sneha, Pothana , Kakatiya Erramallelu , Kavya, Rajendradhan 202, Karna ,Ruchi ,Samridhi,Usha , Asha ,MUD 3,Bhuban Samalei, Orugallu, Abhaya , Shakti , Suraksha , Daya , Pratap , Udaya, IR 36, Shaktiman , Tara , Krishna, Sarasa, Neela , Lalat, Phalguna , Mahaveer, Vibhava, Divya ,Dhanya Lakshmi ,Surekha , Vikram , Kunti , Triguna
  • Remove weeds from fields and bunds
  • Dip the root of the seedling before transplanting in solution of Chlorpyriphos 20 E.C. @ 0.02 % + 4 % urea (0.5 lit. Chlorpyriphos in 25 lit. of water) for 3-4 hours.

Biological control :

  • Platygaster oryzae Cameron is the most important egg larval parasitoid of gall midge, causing 50-90 per cent parasitization depending upon climatic conditions.
  •  Judicious and need based application of safer insecticides will conserve the natural enemies.

Chemical control 

ETL :  5% silver shoots at active tillering stage

Recommended Insecticides

Sl. No.

Chemical Name

Trade Name

Dosage per l of water

Dosage for spray tank

10 l

12 l

16 l

Solid formulations (Granules)


Phorate 10 G

Thimet, Hexamar phorate

Nursery : 12.5 kg/ha

Main field : 10 kg/ha


Carbofuran 3 G


Nursery : 33 kg/ha

Main field : 25 kg/ha


Quinalphos  4 G




Fipronil 0.3 G


Nursery : 33 kg/ha

Main field : 25 kg/ha


  • Sprays are typically less effective because the larvae are within the gall or plant.
  • Use of granules in water are usually better.
  • Apply granules 5-7 days before pulling the seedlings for transplanting.
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