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Onion Varieties

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Onion Varieties

Onion varieties are in a state of rapid change. The number of hybrid varieties is increasing rapidly each year. Onion varieties are known by their size, shape, colour, keeping quality, pungency or their maturation habits. Much importance has been laid on the development of high yielding varieties (HYV) and their production techniques by the inception of All India Co-ordinated Vegetable Improvement Project by ICAR. The important varieties are as under.

A. Red onion: There are seven red onion varieties explained here.

1. Pusa Red: In this type the bulb is medium in size, purple red, flattish round, each bulb weighs 70-90 g, less bolting and ! with poor pungency. The variety requires short to intermediate day length. It matures in 123-140 days after transplanting. It is commonly grown in India. It is a high yielding variety and yields about 257-300 quintals per hectare. Bulb is about 5.84 cm long and 6.7 cm in breadth.

2. Punjab Selection: The bulbs are red in colour, quite firm and having good keeping quality. It is tolerant to purple blotch and thrips and suitable for dehydration. The bulbs are globular in shape and measure 5-6 cm across and each bulb weighs 50-70 grams.

3. Pusa Ratna: The bulbs are large, slightly oblate with attractive deep red and are exposed above ground at maturity. Pungency is less and have good storage quality. The leaves are dark green with waxy bloom and plant is about 30 cm high. It is an early maturing variety with high yield. Its average yield is about 179 quintal per hectare. The mean length of the bulb is 3.1 cm and breadth is 6.3 cm.

4. Agri-found Dark Red: The bulbs are red, tight skin, moderate pungency and globular in shape. It matures in 150-160 days and can grow as kharif season crop. It has a good storage capacity.

5. Arka Niketan : The crop matures in about 45 days, yields about 239 quintal per hectare. It is mainly a kharif crop. Bulbs are globular at their neck and of attractive colour, weighing about 100-180 g each, with mean length of bulb 6.30 cm and breadth 6.09 cm. The bulbs can be stored at room temperature for about 5 months. It has high dry matter content.

6. Arka Kalyan: It can be grown as kharif crop, matures in about 140 days and yields about 274 quintal per hectare. Each bulb weighs about 100-190 g, about 6.5 cm long and 7.3 cm wide. The bulb is deep pink coloured. The leaves are slightly resistant to the purple blotch.

7. N-2-4-1: (The variety is tolerant to alternaria blight. The bulb is about 5.65 cm long and 6.3 cm wide and mild pungent. The crop yields about 190 quintals per hectare. It has a good keeping quality.

B. White onion: The bulbs are white, globe shaped, about 3.72 cm long and 6.55 cm wide. It yields about 139 quintals per bectare. It has a good keeping quality.

Pusa White Round: The bulbs are white, suitable for dehydration, roundish flat, about 4.65 cm long and 6.21 cm wide. It yields about 169 quintal per hectare.

2. S-48: It has a good keeping quality. The plant has 8-9 leaves. Bulbs are flattish round having good flavour and texture. The plant can attain 40-60 cm height.

C. Desi varieties: Main desi varieties are Red Globe, White Globe, Yellow Globe, White Patna, Nasik Red, Large Red, Patna Red, Bellery Red and Jhulia,

D. Imported varieties: White Portugal, Silver Skin, Australian Brown, Sweet Spanish, Red Italian, Early Grano.

E. Selections from Punjab varieties: A number of varieties released by Maharashtra state like N-404, N-491, N-53, all red type and many kharif varieties are nearly selections from Punjab varieties.

F. American or pungent type: They generally produce bulbs of small size, dense texture, strong flavour and better keeping quality. The most important are Bregham Yellow Globe, Yellow .Globe Danvera, Early Yellow Globe etc. Ebenezer is a common yellow variety. Red Wethers Field and Southport Red Globe are red varieties. Southport White Globe has high pungency. White coloured are good for storage.

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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.