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Nutritional Disease in Fishes

Nutritional  Disease in Fishes

  • Nutritional fish diseases can be attributed to deficiency, excess or improper balance of components present in the food available.
  • Symptoms appear gradually when one or more components in the diet drop below the critical level of the body reserves
Nutritional  components 
Protein Reduce growth rate and body deformities
Carbohydrate Depress the digestion; symptoms are similar to that of diabetes millitis in warm blooded animals. Enlarge livers. Sikoki disease in carp similar to diabetic symptoms

Thyroid Hyperlasia or Goiter caused by iodine deficiency. Dicalcium phosphate deficiency cause scoliosis in carps

Vitamins (water soluble)

1.Thiamine (vit-B1) deficiency resulted in poor appetite, muscle atrophy, loss of equilibrium similar to that of whirling disease symptoms in trout, odema and poor growth.

2.Riboflavin (vit-B2) corneal vascularisation, cloudy lens, hemorrhagic eye, photophobia, dim vision, incardination, discoloration, poor growth and anemia.

3.Pyridoxine ((vit-B6) Nervous disorders hyper irritability, aemia serous fluid, rapid gasping and breathing.

4.Panthothenic acid. Loss of appetite, necrosis and scarring, cellular atrophy, exudates on gills, sluggishness, cubbed gills, poor growth

5.Inositol. Fin necrosis anaemia, distended stomach, skin lesions and poor growth.

6. Biotin.Blue slime patch on body, loss of appetite, muscle atrophy, fragmentation of erythrocytes, skin lesion and poor growth.

7.Folic acid. Poor growth, lethargy, fragility of caudal fin, Dark colouration, macrocytic anaemia, decreased appetite.

8.Choline. Anaemia, hemorrhagic kidney and intestine, poor growth.

9.Nicotinic acid. Loss of appetite, photophobia, swollen gills, reduced cooridation, lethargy

10.Vitamin (B12) cobalamin derivative. Erratic haemoglobin level, erythrocyte counts and cell fragmentation.

11.Ascorbic acid. Lordosis and scoliosis eroded caudal fin, deformed gill operculum, impaired collagen formation.



Fat soluble vitamins

  • Vit-A - Causes expthalmos, ascite, odema, hemmorhagic kidney. Hypervitaminosis (A) cause necrotic caudal fin
  • Vit-D   - Necrotic appearance in the kidney
  • Vit-K  - Mild cutaneous hemorrhages due to ineffectiveness of blood clotting
  • Vit-E - Exophthalmia, distended abdomen, anemia with reduced RBC numbers and haemoglobin content. Accumulation of ceroid in fish liver.


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