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Natural Enemies Fauna on Groundnut Leaf miner

 

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Natural Enemies Fauna on Groundnut Leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella (Deventer)

University of Agricultural Sciences, raichur
DEPARTMENT OF agricultural entomology,
COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, RAICHUR

 

Name: Hussain Basha                                                        

PGS 08AGR 4852                                                                                           
Date: 23.10.2009Time: 2.15 pm

                                                                                                


SYNOPSIS 

 

Groundnut is one of the major oilseed cum valuable cash crops for millions of small scale farmers in the semi-arid tropics. India is the second largest producer of groundnut next to China. However the productivity of India (935 kg/ha) is much more less when compared to USA (2995 kg/ha). The reasons for low productivity may be several, of which insect pest damage is the major one. More than 350 species of insects damage the crop in different parts of world (Stalker and Campbell, 1983) of which groundnut leaf miner (GLM), Aproaerema modicella (Deventer) and Spodoptera litura (Fab.) are serious threat to the crop especially in recent years.

A. modicella is an oligophagous pest and feeds only on leguminous host plants and a serious pest of groundnut in both rainy and post-rainy seasons of groundnut and soybean in South and South- East Asia. The extent loss varied from 24-92 per cent based on levels of infestation (Amin, 1987).

 

The pest can be best managed using chemical insecticides. However, under dryland situations, insecticides do not form an economically viable solution due to unpredictable monsoon and consequently the yield. Therefore, there is a need for evaluating other possibilities. Previous attempts in this line have shown that growing intercrops such as cowpea and pearl millet reduce pest damage and favours natural enemies on groundnut leaf miner (Baskaran et al., 1993).

Shekarappa et al. (1990) reported that 16 species of hymenopteran parasitoids were collected from GLM larvae. Among which, the activity of Stenomesius japonicusSympiesis sp. and Tetrastichus sp. were maximum during month of August. (Ashmead),

Ranga Rao and Reddy (1997) reported three pathogens viz., Beauveria bassiana (Vuille), Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metschnioff) and Aspergillus flavus (Von Tiegh) cause diseases on groundnut leaf miner.

Muthaiah (2001) revealed that application of reduced concentration of Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (175 gm/ha) and diclorovas (312.5 ml/ha) was effective on GLM as that of application of diclorovas 625 ml/ha alone.

In the recent years, there has been renewed interest in utilization of natural enemies in pest management. In this context, judicious use of pesticides following integrated approach assumes importance. The approach should include the conservation and inundation of natural enemies by various tactics to minimize the groundnut leafminer incidence.

 

References:

Amin, P. W., 1987, Insect pests of groundnut in India and their management. In; Plant   protection in field crops (Ed.by M. Veerabhadra Rao and S. Sittanantham). pp. 219-333.
Baskaran, R. K. M., Chandrasekaran, J. and Tengavelu, S., 1993, Effect of intercrop on the incidence of groundnut leafminer. Madras agric. J. 80(1):11-13.
Muthaiah, C., 2001, Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis against leafminer (Aproaerema modicella) in groundnut intercropping system, Indian journal of agricultural sciences, 71(5):348-350.
Ranga Rao, G. V. R. and Reddy, P. M., 1997, Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metschn): a potential biological agent for groundnut leafminer. International Arachis Newsletter, 17: 48-49.
Shekarappa, Somasekhar and Patil, B. V., 1990, Parasitoid complex of the groundnut leaf miner, Aproaerema modicella Deventer (Gelechidae: Lepidoptera). J. Biol. Control, 4(1): 55-56.
Stalker, H. T. and Campbell, W. N., 1983, Resistance of wild species of peanut to an insect pest complex. Peanut Sci., 10: 32-33.





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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.