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Introduction of rice

  • Rice covers world’s largest area (28%) covering 42.3 million hectares with a total production of 80 million tonnes annually.
  • Its area is 37% of the total area under food against as against 20% under wheat, another important food crop.
  • But globally it stands next to wheat in harvested area.
  • It is grown in diversified soil, topographical and hydrological situations ranging from sloppy uplands to deep-water areas of above 1 metre depth.
  • It is adapted to cold temperatures that exist in hilly areas and also in the adverse soil conditions such as salinity, alkalinity and acidity.
  • It is a staple food crop of 60 per cent of world’s population.
  • Mostly it is cooked with water.
  • Other edible uses include rice flakes and puffed rice, rice wafers and canned rice.
  • It is also used starch and brewing industries.
  • The byproduct of rice milling i.e., rice husk and bran are used as a cattle and poultry feed.
  • Hard board and paper industries also uses these byproducts.
  • Rice bran oil is used in cooking after refinement.
  • It is also used in making soap.
  • Rice straw are good cattle feed as well as it is also used in marking hats, mats and ropes.

 Rice is the second most widely consumed cereal in the world next to wheat. It is the staple food for two thirds of the world’s population. Over 2 billion people in Asia alone derive 80% of their energy needs from rice, which contains 80% carbohydrates, 7–8% protein, 3% fat, and 3% fiber (Juliano, 1985). Until recently, rice was considered only a starchy food and a source of carbohydrates and some amount of protein. Rice protein, though small in amount, is of high nutritional value (Chaudhary and Tran, 2001).

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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.