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Integrated management of diseases and pests in organic basmati rice

Integrated management of diseases and pests:

I. General precautions:

  •  Select the resistant and well adopted varieties for specific areas.
  •  Select the clean and diseased free seeds.
  •  Proper agronomical practices like optimum planting time and seedling age, planting geometry, depth of planting, etc.
  •  Good water management for example at the time of attack of insects and diseases, water should be drained out.

II. Field preparation:

• Apply FYM pre-colonized with Trichoderma harzianum (TH) or Pseudomonas fluorescens (PsF). For the precolonization of FYM, TH/PsF is to be added at monthly interval in FYM pits @ 100 g/pit or Pant Bio-agent-3 @ 1.0kg/pit. These pits should be covered with sugarcane leaves or rice straw. Water should be sprayed at regular intervals (at least once after bioagent application) and 15 and 7 days before FYM use to maintain moisture.

• Planting of green manure crops should be done. Spray Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens @ each 5g/liter of water just at the time of incorporation of green manure crop.

III. At nursery sowing time:

  • Seed treatment with salted water followed by Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 5 g each /kg seed or Pant Bio-agent-3 @ 10g/kg seed.
  • Seed bio-priming with Pseudomonas fluorescens (PsF) (10 g per kg seed).
  • Apply one pheromone trap for stem borer per 100 m2 nursery area.
  • Release Trichogramma japonicum or T. chilonis @150000 parasitoids/ha.

  III. During transplanting:

  • Drenching of PsF (1 g/ m2) in nursery soil one day before uprooting of seedlings or dipping of roots of seedlings in suspension of PsF (5g/l).
  • Avoid planting under full or partial shade to avoid bacterial blight (BLB). Once BLB attacks plants in shade these plants become source of inoculums for remaining field.

                                                                                                  Pheromone trap in field       pheromone trap

                                                                                                                             Fig: Pheromone trap

III. After transplanting till maturity

  • Use pheromone traps (5 mg pheromone per trap; 20 traps/ha; 20 x 25 m distance) within a week of transplanting for stem borer and replace lure after 30 days. Maintain height of trap at 50 cm in nursery and early stage of the crop. As a plant grows height of the traps should be raised so as they are all the time approx. 30 cm above crop canopy.
  • Avoid water stagnation and at the time of attack of insects and diseases water must be drained out from the field.
  • Spray 10% cow urine mixed with neem leaves one week before use. The spray of cow urine should be started 25 days after transplanting and subsequently 3-4 spray at 15 days interval.
  • Spray 5% vermiwash /compost tea treated with Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens
  • Spray mixed formulation of compatible strains of PsF and Trichoderma harzianum (TH) (5g each per liter of water) or Pant Bio Agent-3 (10 g/l) at panicle initiation for sheath blight, sheath rot & neck blast. One to two sprays are to be given at weekly interval.
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