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Integrated Fish cum Pig Farming

Integrated Fish cum Pig Farming

Benefits of Fish cum Pig Farming

  1. The fish utilize the food spilled by pigs and their excreta which is very rich in nutrients.
  2. The pig dung acts as a substitute for pond fertilizer and supplementary fish feed. Hence, the cost of fish production is greatly reduced.
  3. No additional land is required for piggery operations.
  4. Cattle fodder required for pigs and grass are grown on the pond embankments.
  5. Pond provides water for washing the pig - sties and pigs.
  6. It results in high production of animal protein per unit area.
  7. It ensures high profit through less investment.
  8. The pond muck which gets accumulated at the pond bottom due to constant application of pig dung can be used as fertilizer for growing vegetables and other crops and cattle fodder.

Stocking of Fish

  • The stocking rates vary from 8,000 – 8,500 fingerlings / ha and a species ratio of 40 % surface feeders, 20 % of column feeders, 30 % bottom feeders and 10-20 % weedy feeders are preferred for high fish yields.
  • Mixed culture of only Indian major carps can be taken up with a species ratio of 40 % surface, 30 % column and 30 % bottom feeders.
  • In the northern and north - western states of India, the ponds should be stocked in the month of March and harvested in the month of October – November. Due to severe winter the growth of fishes get affected.
  • In the south, coastal and north - eastern states of India, where the winter season is mild, the ponds should be stocked in June - September months and harvested after rearing the fish for 12 months.

Use of Pig Waste as Manure:

  • Pig - sty washings including pig dung, urine and spilled feed are channelled into the pond.
  • Pig dung is applied to the pond every morning. Each pig voids between 500-600 Kg dung / year, which is equivalent to 250-300 Kg / pig / 6 months.
  • The excreta voided by 30 – 40 pigs is adequate to fertilize one hectare pond.
  • When the first lot of pigs is disposed off after 6 months, the quantity of excreta going to the pond decreases. This does not affect the fish growth as the organic load in the pond is sufficient to tide over for next 2 months when new piglets grow to give more excreta.
  • If the pig dung is not sufficient, pig dung can be collected from other sources and applied to the pond. Pig dung consists 69 - 71 % moisture, 1.3 - 2 % nitrogen and 0.36 - 0.39 phosphate.
  • The quality and quantity of excreta depends upon the feed provided and the age of the pigs.
  • The application of pig dung is deferred on the days when algal blooms appear.

Pig Husbandry Practices:

The factors like breed, strain, and management influence the growth of pigs.

a. Construction of Pig House:

  • Pig houses with adequate accommodation and all the requirements are essential for the rearing of pigs.
  • The pigs are raised under two systems the Open Air and Indoor Systems. A combination of the two is followed in fish cum pig farming system.
  • A single row of pig pens facing the pond is constructed on the pond embankment.
  • An enclosed run is attached to the pen towards the pond so that the pigs get enough air, sunlight, exercise and dunging space.
  • The feeding and drinking troughs are also built to keep the pens dry and clean.
  • The gates are provided to the open run only. The floor of the run is cemented and connected via the drainage canal to the pond.
  • A shutter is provided in the drainage canal to stop the flow of wastes to the pond. The drainage canal is provided with a diversion channel to a pit, where, the wastes are stored when the pond is filled with algal bloom.
  • The stored wastes are applied according to necessity. The height of the pig house should not exceed 1.5 m.
  • The floor of the house must be cemented.
  • The pig house can be constructed with locally available materials. It is advisable to provide 1 - 1.5 m2 space for each pig.

b. Selection of Pigs:

  • Four types of pigs are available in our country - wild pigs, domesticated pigs or indigenous pigs, exotic pigs and upgraded stock of exotic pigs.
  • The Indian varieties are small sized with a slow growth rate and produce small litters. Its meat is of inferior quality.
  • Two exotic upgraded stock of pigs such as large - White Yorkshire, Middle - White Yorkshire, Berkshire, Hampshire and Hand Race are most suitable for raising with fish culture. These are well known for their quick growth and prolific breeding.
  • They attain slaughter maturity size of 60 - 70 Kg within six months. They give 6 - 12 piglets in every litter.
  • The age at first maturity ranges from 6 - 8 months. Thus, two crops of exotic and upgraded pigs of six months each are raised along with one crop of fish which are cultured for one year.
  • 30 - 40 pigs are raised per hectare of water area. About two months old weaned piglets are brought to the pig-sties and fattened for 6 months an when they attain slaughter maturity are harvested.

c. Feeding:

  • The dietary requirements are similar to the ruminants.
  • The pigs are not allowed to go out of the pig house where they are fed on balanced pig mash of 1.4 Kg / pig / day.
  • Grasses and green cattle fodder are also provided as food to pigs.
  • To minimize food spoilage and to facilitate proper feeding without scrambling and fighting, it is better to provide feeding troughs. Similar separate troughs are also provided for drinking water.
  • The composition of pig mash is a mixture of 30 Kg rice bran, 15 Kg polished rice, 27 Kg wheat bran, 10 Kg broken rice, 10 Kg groundnut cake, 4 Kg fish meal, 3 Kg mineral mixture and 1 Kg common salt.
  • To reduce quantity of ration and also to reduce the cost, spoiled vegetables, especially the rotten potatoes can be mixed with pig mash and fed to pigs after boiling.  
  • The pigs are hardy animals. They may suffer from diseases like swine fever, swine plague, swine pox and also infected with round worms, tapeworms, liver flukes, etc.
  • Pig - sties should be washed daily and all the excreta drained and offal into the pond. The pigs are also washed.
  • Disinfectants must be used every week while washing the pig - sites. Piglets and pigs should be vaccinated.

d. Harvesting:

  • Fish attain marketable size within a few months due to the availability of natural food in this integrated pond.
  • According to the demand of fish in the local market, partial harvesting is done.
  • After the partial harvest, same numbers of fingerlings are introduced into the pond. Final harvesting is done after 12 months of rearing.
  • Fish yield ranging from 6,000-7,000 Kg / ha / yr is obtained.
  • The pigs are sold out after rearing for six months when they attain slaughter maturity and get 4,200 – 4,500 Kg pig meat.

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