20. Improved Live-stocking, Breeding and Management
i) Livestock shall continue to be the backbone of livelihood due to ever increasing population and shrinking per capita resources availability. Livestock rearing generates 4-5 times more employment as compared to raising of crops which is essential due to demographic growth.Decrease population of unproductive animals in drought prone areas through castration/controlled breeding. However, while implementing it, the socio-cultural conditions of different areas of the country should be considered. Cattle/livestock insurance schemes need to be made more effective.
ii) Upgradation of indigenous livestock strictly following area specific animal breeding concept. In livestock improvement, introduction of exotic blood particularly in Rajasthan must be discouraged. There is a need for state level breeding policy for the livestock. Tharparkar cow which can graze under high temperature and produce higher milk during hot summers, needs scaling up.
iii) Creation of drinking water bodies through introduced water in grazing areas. It has been reported that more deaths of livestock occur due to dehydration than because of non-availability of fodder. The animals are forced to drink saline water. There is also a need to identify livestock species/breeds having moderate body weight and resistance for prolonged dehydration Livestock based water management strategy which focuses on recycling of water, de-contamination and washing and flushing etc. needs to be developed.
iv) Establishment of permanent sites for cattle camps and fodder depots in drought prone areas. This is important because large scale migration of livestock from, drought affected areas to non-drought areas puts pressure on economy of those areas and subsequent problems. As far as possible these cattle camps should be established in irrigated areas of the state where assured supply of drinking water plus irrigation water to raise fodder crops is available. There should be safe provision for disposal of dead animals.
v) Because of shortage of fodder and feed, the animals are forced to graze on non-palatable and poisonous miscellaneous vegetation. There is, therefore, an urgent need of inventory of anti-quality factors in all kinds of plants growing naturally in drought prone areas. Collection, conservation and upgradation of quality of such resources must form an integral part of future research.
vi) Proper redressal of drought related animal health problems including precautionary vaccination. Emergency measures or life saving approaches such as drenching/watering, guard against heat stress, semi-liquid diet and therapeutic care, drug therapy and restoration and normalization measures need to be undertaken. These measures, however, will differ in different areas depending upon longevity of dry spell.
Ministry of Agriculture, GOI.
Submitted by sugatha on Thu, 17/09/2009 - 11:47