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Improved Live-stocking, Breeding and Management

20.      Improved Live-stocking, Breeding and Management


i)        Livestock  shall  continue  to  be  the  backbone  of  livelihood  due  to  ever increasing population and shrinking per capita resources availability. Livestock rearing generates 4-5 times more employment as compared to raising of crops which is essential due to demographic growth.Decrease population of unproductive  animals  in  drought prone  areas  through  castration/controlled breeding.  However,  while  implementing  it,  the  socio-cultural  conditions  of different areas of the  country should be considered. Cattle/livestock  insurance schemes need to be made more effective.


ii)       Upgradation   of  indigenous   livestock   strictly  following   area   specific animal  breeding  concept.  In  livestock  improvement,  introduction  of  exotic blood particularly in Rajasthan  must be discouraged. There is a need for state level breeding policy for the livestock. Tharparkar cow which can graze under high  temperature and produce higher  milk  during  hot summers,  needs scaling up.


iii)      Creation  of  drinking  water  bodies  through  introduced  water  in  grazing areas.   It   has   been   reported   that   more   deaths   of   livestock   occur   due   to dehydration than because of non-availability of fodder. The animals are forced to drink saline water. There is also a need to identify livestock species/breeds having   moderate   body   weight   and   resistance   for   prolonged   dehydration Livestock  based  water  management  strategy  which  focuses  on  recycling  of water, de-contamination and washing and flushing etc. needs to be developed.


iv)      Establishment  of  permanent  sites  for  cattle  camps  and  fodder  depots  in drought   prone   areas.   This   is   important   because   large   scale   migration   of livestock  from,  drought  affected  areas  to  non-drought  areas  puts  pressure  on economy of those areas and subsequent problems. As far as possible these cattle camps should be established in irrigated areas of the state where assured supply of drinking water plus irrigation water to raise fodder crops is available. There should be safe provision for disposal of dead animals.


v)       Because of shortage of fodder and feed, the animals are forced to graze on non-palatable  and  poisonous  miscellaneous vegetation. There is, therefore, an urgent need of inventory of anti-quality factors in all kinds of plants growing naturally  in  drought  prone  areas.  Collection,  conservation  and  upgradation  of quality of such resources must form an integral part of future research.


vi)      Proper  redressal  of  drought  related  animal  health  problems  including precautionary vaccination. Emergency measures or life saving approaches such as    drenching/watering, guard against    heat stress, semi-liquid diet  and therapeutic care, drug therapy and restoration and normalization measures need to  be  undertaken.       These measures, however,  will  differ  in  different  areas depending upon longevity of dry spell.










                                                                                                                                Ministry of Agriculture, GOI.

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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.