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GAP(Good agricultural practices) in wheat

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Good agricultural practices for Wheat

 Rajeew Kumar

G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-Uttrakhand

Wheat is the most important Rabi cereal crop used as staple food in India. It alone contributes about 33 percent to the total food grain production of the country. The area, production and productivity of wheat and rice are given in table 1 & 2. It contains about 10-14% protein in grains. Its protein quality is also very much important for good health of human being. The suitable package of practices for what cultivation from intensive agronomic research has been forwarded form time to time. It may be emphasized that there is prime need to adopt latest agronomic recommendations to utilize full potential of newly developed what varieties.

 Tips for harvesting a bumper crop of wheat

  • Select the recommended varieties for your area specific to each cultural condition.
  • Use certified seed or good physical purity and germination.
  • Do not delay sowing beyond recommended period.
  • Apply recommended quantity of fertilizers and use correct methods of application.
  • Take proper care of weeds under control at right time with chemicals/manual weed control measure.
  • Irrigate at proper time/stage of crop and avoid over irrigation.
  • Adopt proper crop protection measures.
  • Harvest the crop at proper stage and keep at safe moisture level.
  • For optimizing any input is the most important and any negligence in this respect can not be rectified by making by any modification in the method and quantity.

 Tips for harvesting good crop after rice in rice-wheat system

  • Select the rice and wheat varieties so that wheat sowing can be done at right time.
  • In late sown condition use 25% higher seed rate than normal and row to row distance should be 15-18 cm.
  • Avoid more puddling in rice crop.
  • Sowing should be done by Zero till ferti seed droll at proper time in Rice-Wheat System.
  • Dhaincha can be grown after the harvest of wheat crop for green manurring.
  • Use 20-25 kg/ha nitrogen in the from of urea to decompose rice stubbles.

Land preparation

            After the harvest of Kharif  crop, give one ploughing with soil turing plough followed by 2-3 harrowing. Cultivate the soil only when it comes in condition, other wise it will result in a clod formation and will become unmanageable. Use Pantnagar zero till ferti seed drill for avoiding delay sowing of wheat and saving of energy and time. It reduces the cost of cultivation.

 Time of sowing

            Most suitable sowing time is considered when the mean daily temperature drops down to 22-230C. If temperature goes above 250C at germination phase, the seedlings are likely to be seriously attacked by fungal organism. This produces very few tillers make sparse growth and come to heading very early and finally yield is poor. Delay in sowing of wheat in low temperature conditions take more time for germination and enforce the corp. to mature early due to abrupt rise in temperature in later stage. The late sown what has to complete its life cycle in shorter period than timely sown. Late sowing is mainly due to delayed harvesting of late Paddy/scented paddy, toria, sugarcane and early potato. If the sowing of wheat is delayed beyond November, than there is reduction in yield @ 47 and 57 kg/ha/day in December and January sown crops, respectively. Long duration varieties of wheat like UP 2338, PBW 343, WH 542 and HD 2687, PBW 502 should be sown in first fortnight of November, whereas UP 2425, Raj 3765 should be sown in second fortnight of November under irrigated conditions.

 Method of sowing

            Sowing of wheat by Pantnagar Zero till ferti-seed drill, strip till drill, FIRBS and ferti-seed drill (Conventional type ) are better than broadcast.

Seed rate and spacing

            Normally for normal and rainfed sown crop wheat seed @ 100 kg/ha is sufficient. For late sown, 125 kg seed/ha is recommended. The row spacing should be 22-23 cm for irrigated normal sown, whereas, 15-18 cm for late sown condition. Optimum depth of sowing is 5 cm deep in the most zone of soil. Seed should be treated with Vitavax of Bavistin @ 2.5 g/kg of seed.

Weed control

            In wheat crop mostly two types of weeds are found grassy and non grassy (broad leaved) weeds. Among grassy weed include Phalaris minor Avena Spp., Polypogon monspliensis etc. P. Minor and wild oats are on wide level and these are problematic weeds. These weeds are more harmful than non grassy weeds. To control both grassy and non grassy weeds, following weedicades could be used for effective control of weeds in wheat crop. To control broad leaves weeds: 2.4-D @ 500g ai/ha in 700 liters of water at 35-40 days after sowing under timely sown crop, and 40-45 days after sowing under late sown condition.  Metsulphuron (Allgrip) @ 4 g ai/ha in 700 liters of water at 30-35 days after sowing.  To control narrow leaves weeds:  Isoproturon @ 1.00 kg ai/ha or Sulfosulfuron @ 25 g ai/ha or Clodinophop @ 60 g ai/ha or MEtribuzine @ 175 g ai/ha in 700 liters of water at 30-35 days after sowing or Pendimethaline @ 1.oo kg ai/ha as Pre emergence in 700 liter of water. Use flate fan Nozzels for effective spray.

Fertilizer management: Fertilizer should be applied on soil test value. If soil test values are not available than apply 150 kg N + 60 kg P2O5 + 40 kg K2 O/ha (P and K deficient soils) under Rice-wheat cropping system. Under unirrigated and rainfed condition, 40-60 kg N + 30 kg P2O5 + 20 kg K2O/ha. Use of zinc sulphate @ 25 kg/ha in zinc deficient soils to rectify the defects. In high pH saline  and alkaline conditions gypsum @ 10-15 tonnes/ha can also be applied.

 Irrigation Managment

            Irrigate the crop at right stage; four to six irrigations are required. Numberof irrigations differ according to soil type, amount and time of winter rains and water table. First irrigation should be given at crown root initiation (20-25 days after sowing), second irrigation should be given at Late tillering stage (40-45 days after sowing), third irrigation should be given at late jointing stage (60-65 days after sowing), fourth irrigation should be given at flowering stage (80-85 days after sowing), fifth irrigation should be given at milk stage (100-105 days after sowing) and sixth irrigation should be given at dough stage (115-120 days after sowing).

Under limited conditions

            Irrigate the crop at CRI, boot and Mild Stage. If water is available for one irrigation than irrigate the crop at crown root initiation stage.

Harvesting

            Crop should be harvested when the ears/spikes turn yellow and becomes fairly dry. To avoid shattering, harvesting should be done before the crop is dead ripe. Harvesting and threshing can be done with combine or manually with in short time and produced can be kept safe for further disposal.

Yield: If all the agronomic practices are followed at their optimal level, 55-60 q/ha grain yield and 85-90 q/ha straw can be obtained with normal sown crop. In rainfed and late sown conditions yields are lower than normal irrigated

 

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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.