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Formulation of Chemicals


Formulation of Chemicals

Chemicals are available in the market in different forms. Most commonly available formulations are

A. Wettable powders: A large percentage of chemicals are formulated as wettable powders which are most commonly used for spray mixtures. Modern wettable powders are easily wetted and disperse well in water. In addition to wettable powder a spread-sticker is sometimes desirable, especially on plants with glossy or waxy leaves. Agitation is generally necessary in the spray tanks to keep a uniform suspension.

B. Dusts: Dusts are the formulations that usually contain 4-10% of the active ingredient and are usually applied dry as dusts.

C. Emulsifiable concentrates (E.C.): Emulsifiable concentrates (E.C) are liquids in which the active ingredient is dissolved in a solvent. The chemicals and the solvents will often not mix with water. So, an emulsifying material is included. When these emulsifiable concentrates are added to water, a milking mixture is formed which is a suspension of active ingredient and emulsified solvent in the water.

D. Granules: Granules are formulations of chemicals with inert materials formed into particles about the size of coarse sugar. The percentage of active ingredient is usually low as in case of dusts. Granules have the advantage that they can be measured in dry form more easily and accurately than dusts or wettable powders. They are more. conveniently used in furrow treatments. Very few chemicals are sold in this form.

E. Solution: True solutions are formulations in which the active ingredient or a combination of active ingredient and solvent is dissolved in water. It has the advantage of requiring no agitation after the formulation is added to water. These have a high degree of solubility hence are very effective in controlling plant pathogens, but are generally too toxic to the plant.

F. Suspensions or slurries: Suspensions or slurries are formulations in which a dry form of active ingredient is mixed with a liquid. These have high percentage of active ingredient similar to wettable powders. They are mixed with water for final use and require agitation.


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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.