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Extension-teaching methods

Extension-teaching methods

The extension-teaching methods are the tools & techniques used to create situations in which communication can take place between the rural people & the extension workers. They are the methods of extending new knowledge & skills to the rural people by drawing their attention towards them, arousing their interest & helping them to have a successful experience of the new practice. A proper understanding of these methods & their selection for a particular type of work are necessary.

Classification of extension teaching methods


One way of classifying the extension methods is according to their use & nature of contact. In other words, whether they are used for contacting people individually, in groups or in masses. Based upon the nature of contact, they are divided into individual, group & mass- contact methods.

  1. Individual-contact method- Extension methods under this category provide opportunities for face-to-face or person-to-person contact between the rural people & the extension workers. These methods are very effective in teaching new skills & creating goodwill between farmers & the extension workers.
  2. Group-contact methods- Under this category, the rural people or farmers are contacted in a group which usually consists of 20 to 25 persons. These groups are usually formed around a common interest. These methods also involve a face-to-face contact with the people & provide an opportunity for the exchange of ideas, for discussions on problems & technical recommendations & finally for deciding the future course of action.
  3. Mass or community-contact method - An extension worker has to approach a large number of people for disseminating a new information & helping them to use it. this can be done through mass-contact methods conveniently. These methods are more useful for making people aware of the new agricultural technology quickly.

Important extension-teaching methods under these 3 categories are listed in the following chart.

Individual contacts

Group contacts

Mass contacts

Farm & home visits

Method demonstration & result demonstration


Office calls

National demonstration leader-training meetings


Telephone calls

Conferences & discussion meetings & workshops

Circular letters & radio

Personal letters

Field trips



Extension-teaching methods are also classified according to their forms, such as written, spoken & audio-visual. Some of the important methods under each of these 3 categories are given in Chart 2

Classification of extension-teaching methods according to their form



Objective or visual


General & special meetings

Result demonstration

Leaflets,folders,News articles

Farm & home visits

Demonstration posters

Personal letters

Official calls

Motion-picture or movies, charts

Circular letters

Telephone calls, radio

Slides & film-strips,models,exhibits

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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.