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Draft animal


  Jayant Singh& M.P.Singh


Animal traction has a long history in agricultural production. It is an appropriate, affordable and sustainable technology requiring very low external inputs. Draft animals not only reduce drudgery and intensify agricultural production but also raise living standards of rural community. These animals are also being used for variety of post harvest operations such as cane crushing, oil extraction, water lifting, threshing (tramping), winnowing and several other operations.  (Singh and Singh, 1987).

Present status of Draft animal power in Uttaranchal

             In hill region of Uttaranchal mainly bullocks are used for agricultural draft purpose where as in Tarai Bhabhar area the buffaloes as well as bullocks are used as draft animal. Khachchar, donkey and yake are generally used for transportation purpose in hil .

 Agricultural Implements and hand tools being used by the farmers

            The present level of mechanization is far from satisfactory level. It was seen that in most of the villages only local implements such as Nasooda (plough), Danela (interculture implement), Damala (paddy puddler) and wooden patella are being used by the farmers for various tillage operations. In addition, hand tools such as Kutla, Kassi, Spade, Daranti and Thamali are commonly used by women in the hill region.

 1. Pant Hill Yoke

            Use of improved yokes and harnesses are likely to increase the draught capacity of bullocks by about 15%. Thus the farmers will be able to carry out 15% more load in their carts and will be able to do about 15-20% more field work from the same pair of animals.  



                      Fig:1 Pant Hill Yoke  

The body weight of hill bullocks ranged between 200-300 kg. . The Tun and Haldu wood is used for manufacturing the hill yokes. The basic property of Tun and Haldu is that they are lighter in weight and high in strength.

2. Pant Pauri Nasuda

            Nasuda is used for seedbed preparation i.e. ploughing and planting operation. The local nasuda, made of wood was found to be in efficient for hill conditions, as the life of the implement was short. The Pauri Nasuda, where the plough bottom is made of steel, can be used for 3 to 4 years without any major repair and maintenance. The present cost of Pauri Nasuda is Rs. 100 only. 


   Fig. 2 Pant Pauri Nasuda 

3. Pant Pauri Danela

            This is an implement used for interculture operations in the hills. The implement is similar to the bullock drawn cultivator used in plains.In the improved danela, the basic frames as well as pegs/tynes are made of steel. . The weight of improved danela is only 6.5 kg which can be easily handled by the farmers while carrying it from one terrace to another during operation. The cost of this implement is Rs. 300 .


Fig :3  Pant Pauri Danela

  4. Pant Pauri DamalaDamala is an implement used for the puddling of the paddy fields. The developed damala has been provided with steel pegs in place of the wooden ones in the local damala. There were twowooden handles in the local implement, whereas, only one steel handle has been provided in the improved one. it requires less maintenance and only one man is needed to operate the implement. The present cost of this implement is Rs. 300.           



Fig. 4  Pant Pauri Damala 




5. Pantnagar Buck Scraper

            A bullock drawn buck scraper used for levelling the field has been manufactured by R.T.S. Pauri. I. It is also suitable for making terraces on the hills. The various components of buck scraper are easily detachable for easy transport and may be assembled together quickly prior to operation. The cost of this scraper is Rs. 750.

6. Pantnagar Lifting Patela

            This implement has been developed for breaking the clods and collecting the stubbles and roots of previous crops. The advantage of this implement over the local model, known as Singh Patela, is that only one person is required to operate the implement, whereas in case of Singh Patela, two persons are required. The tyne assembly can be raised by pushing the handle forward which may result in releasing the stubbles at the desired place. . The cost of the implement is Rs. 650.

7. Multi Crop Seeding Attachment for Local Plough (Nasooda)

            This is an useful attachment for sowing wheat, soybean, pulses, oil seeds and millets. The developed seeding attachment may be mounted behind the country plough i.e. Nasuda. The sowing is done by changing seed metering rollers suitable for different crops. There is provision to change the seed rate. About 0.25 hactare land can be sown in 8 hours of working with the help of one pair of bullock. The cost of machine is about Rs. 500.

8. Pant Animal Drawn Zero-till Ferti-seed drill:The Pant row zero-till ferti-seed drill is developed for direct seeding of wheat in paddy harvested fields without preparing the seedbed. The drill can also be used in seedbed prepared fields with proper depth adjustment. The other crops like bean, gram and soybean can also be sown with this drill. . The weight of the seed drill is 25 kg. The area covered is 0.40 ha/day. There is saving of Rs. 3,800 per ha over conventional method of sowingThe cost of machine is about Rs. 2,800.



9. Olpad Thresher

            This equipment is very useful and efficient in threshing paddy, wheat, soybean, pulses etc. in valleys. Majority of farmers thresh their paddy by beating or rubbing and wheat crop by beating by wooden sticks. This animal drawn thresher has 20 number serrated steel disks in three rows. . About 5 quintal grain may be threshed in one day by using one pair of bullock. The cost of this thresher is only Rs. 1500.




             Fig. 5  Olpad Thresher

10. Winnowing Fan-Cum-Paddy Thresher This is multi purpose equipment used for paddy threshing and winnowing of threshed crop. Two persons are required to use the machine i.e. one to operate and another to handle the crop. Threshing is done by rubbing of the crop earheads with spiked cylinder drum. After threshing, the grain is cleaned by winnowing fan. Threshing of 60 to 100 kg paddy can be done in one hour depending upon variety of crop. The winnowing capacity is also found to be 100 kh/hr. The cost of machine is Rs. 1500.   



Singh, M.P. and Singh, B. 1987. An investigation on physiological response of buffaloes at different work rest cycle in rotary mode of operation. National Seminar on status of Animal Energy Utilization. January, 1987, Processing's C.I.A.E., Bhopal. Pp: 92-115.

Singh, M. P. and Singh Jayant 1995. Status of Draft Animal Research in Northern India. National Seminar on Status of Draft Animal Power and its Utilization 6-7 March, 1995 I.E.R.T., Allahabad.

Varshney, B.P. Annual Report of ICAR Adhoc Research Project on Development, Testing and Production of Hill Agricultural Implements year 2000-2001.

Editted and formatted by: Shweta Singh



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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.