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Classification of Wheat (Triticum Species)

Classification of Wheat

Wheat is an annual plant of Gramineae family. It belongs to genus Triticum. Although as many as 18 species of wheat have been describe and recognised by Percival (1921) only a few are of importance in agriculture. The following is the classification on the basis of chromosomal number:


Einkorn series (diploid)

Chromosome No.

1. Triticum aegiloploids

7

2. Triticum monecoccum

7

Einkorn Series (tetraploid)

Triticum dicoccoides

14

Triticum timopheevi

14

Triticum persicum

14

Triticum polonicum

14

Triticum turgidum

14

Triticum orientale

14

Triticum durum

14

Triticum dicoccum

14

Dinkale series (hexaploid)

1. Triticum spelts

21

2.Triticum macha

21

3.Triticum aestivum or vulgare

21

 

In India only three species of wheat namely Triticum aestivum (common bread wheat), Triticum durum (macaroni or durum wheat) and Triticum dicoccum (emmer wheat) are economically important. The bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the most important species accounting to a little over 87 per cent of the total wheat production of India followed by the durum wheat (about 12 per cent) and dicoccum wheat (about 1 per cent). The common wheat (T. aestivum) which is good for chapati making and bakery products is grown in whole of North India and also in Central and South India. The durum wheat which is good for 'suji', 'semya', 'sphagetti' and 'macaronil' is grown only in Central and South India and that too under rainfed conditions. The dicoccum wheat is grown only on limited acreage in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat. It is good for the South India dish 'Uppumav'.

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