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Area, production and yield



 

Growth in the production of agricultural crops depends on acreage and yield. Limitations in the expansion of agricultural land suggest that increase in gross cropped area can come from multiple cropping. In view of this, the main source of long-term output growth is improvement in yield. The trends in indices of area, production and yield of different crops till 2007-08 (Base T.E 1981-82=100) are given as under Table 6.

Rice

Compound growth rates of index of area under rice show a negative growth of (-) 0.1 per cent per annum during 2001-08 compared to the 1990s. The area under rice cultivation has remained more or less stagnant in the recent years while growth in yield has shown an increase.

Wheat

Area under wheat that was around 25 million hectares in 2002-03 increased to 26.4 million hectares in 2005-06 and further to 28 million hectares in 2007-08. The coverage under irrigation has been about 87 to 89 per cent of area for wheat. The compound growth rates of indices of area, production and yield of wheat during 1991-2000 and 2001-08 show a perceptible decline.

Coarse cereals

Growth in index of area during 2001-08 improved, compared to the 1990s. The growth in index of yield increased significantly, leading to an increase in the growth in production.

Pulses

7.23 Gram and tur are the major contributors to the total pulses production in the country. During the period 2000-01 to 2007-08 there has been an improvement in the growth in the indices of yield and in area resulting in considerable increase in the growth in production.

Sugarcane

The area under sugarcane showed an increase from 3.93 million hectares in 2003-04 to around 5.04 million hectares in 2007-08. Production increased from 233.86 million tonnes in 2003-04 to 348.2 million tonnes in 2007-08. Accordingly, yield increased from 59.4 tonnes per hectare to 69.1 tonnes per hectare in 2007-08. Despite a decline in growth in index of yield during 2001-08 as compared to the 1990s, the index of production growth was more or less sustained by the growth in index of area during the period.

Cotton

Cotton occupies an important place among the cash crops in India. Cotton is grown in nine major states namely, Punjab, Haryana, North Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

The area under cotton increased from 7.60 million hectares in 2003-04 to 9.43 million hectares in 2007-08. The yield of cotton went up from 307 kgs per hectare in 2003-04 to 466 kgs per hectare in 2007-08. The compound growth in index of yield has shown an increase from (-) 0.4 per cent during the 1990s to 15.8 per cent during 2001-08. However, the growth in index of area moderated, but remained positive. The combined effect on index of production was an increase in growth from 2.3 per cent during the 1990s to 17.5 per cent during 2001-08.

Oilseeds

Area covered under nine oilseeds, which stood at 23.66 million hectares in 2003-04 increased to 26.54 million hectares in 2007-08. Production of oilseeds, which stood at 25.19 million tonnes in 2003-04, increased to 29.76 million tonnes in 2007-08. The growth in indices of yield and area under oilseeds has shown a perceptible improvement during 2001-08 as compared to the 1990s.

Area coverage 2008-09

During 2008-09 the area sown at all-India level under kharif was 2.3 per cent less than the area sown in 2007-08 of 1,039.23 lakh hectares. As on 27.03.09, area sown under all rabi crops taken together has been reported to be higher at 638.33 lakh hectares as compared to 619.68 lakh hectares in the corresponding period of 2007-08.

Table 6 : Compound growth rates of area, production and yield (as % per annum with Base T.E 1981-82=100)

Rice

   Growth rates

1980-81 to 1989-90

1990-91 to 1999-2000

2000-01 to 2007-08

   Area

0.4

0.7

-0.1

   Production

3.6

2.0

1.9

   Yield

3.2

1.3

2.0

Wheat

   Area

0.5

1.7

1.3

   Production

3.6

3.6

1.4

   Yield

3.1

1.8

0.1

Coarse cereals

   Area

-1.3

-2.1

-0.4

   Production

0.4

0.0

3.3

   Yield

1.6

1.8

4.3

Pulses

   Area

-0.1

-0.6

1.9

   Production

1.5

0.6

3.4

   Yield

1.6

0.9

1.7

Sugarcane

   Area

1.4

-0.1

1.9

   Production

2.7

2.7

2.2

   Yield

1.2

1.1

0.3

Cotton

   Area

-1.3

2.7

1.5

   Production

2.8

2.3

17.5

   Yield

4.1

-0.4

15.8

Nine oilseeds

   Area

2.5

0.2

3.4

   Production

5.4

1.4

7.2

   Yield

2.5

1.4

 
Source : Department of Agriculture & Cooperation

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Please note that this is the opinion of the author and is Not Certified by ICAR or any of its authorised agents.