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IIT-Kanpur

Flowering stage

It begins soon after heading. The anthers of the terminal spikelet are first to come out, others follows. Anthesis occurs 25 days after PI, irrespective of the variety. At this stage the panicle is erect in shape.Pollination / fertilization: Rice is highly self pollinated. The florets open from morning to afternoon depending upon variety and weather. The stamens elongate and anthers move out of the glumes as the pollen is shed. The pollens' are received by the pistil and move to the ovary via pollen tubes.

Heading stage

This is the stage when the panicle comes out .Generally 3 weeks after panicle initiation stage.

 

Booting stage

In short and medium duration varieties  it coincides with the maximum tilloering phase. This stage begins when the primordial of the panicle has differentiated and becomes visible; about 50-55 DAS. It occurs first in the main stem and then in the primary and secondary tillers. Availability of sufficient water in field as essential. Unavailability of sufficient water, as can happen in direct seeded rice, delays panicle emergence.

Panicle initiation stage

In short and medium duration varieties  it coincides with the maximum tilloering phase. This stage begins when the primordial of the panicle has differentiated and becomes visible; about 50-55 DAS. It occurs first in the main stem and then in the primary and secondary tillers. Availability of sufficient water in field as essential. Unavailability of sufficient water, as can happen in direct seeded rice, delays panicle emergence.

Vegetave lag stage

This stage is also known as stem elongation  stage and is present only in long duration varieties and is between the end of vegetative stage and start of the panicle intation  stage. The plant shows only stem elongation. This phase could vary from few to as many as 30/40 days depending upon the durtation of the variety.

Time of transplanting

This starts with the appearance of first tiller after the emergence of 4/5th leaf. Tillers displace the leaf, from whose axil they emerge. Transplanting of seedling is recommended at this stage.

Deep water ecosystem

Tidal wetland ecosystem

Irrigated ecosystem

 

Irrigated rice ecosystems are those areas that have assured irrigation for one or more crops per year. About 57% of world area under rice (about 43 million ha) area under irrigation. Yield levels achieved are 4-7 t ha-1 crop-1. There are three rice environments in this ecosystem, namely, irrigated with favorable temperature, irrigated with unfavorable temperature-tropical zone and irrigated with unfavorable temperature-temperate zone.

Rainfed lowland ecosystem

The rainfed lowland ecosystem covers 38 million ha or 27 per cent of the rice area of the world. These are rice growing areas with bunded fields. Where water depth does not exceed 50cm for more than 10 consecutive days and the fields are inundated for at least part of the season. No water harvesting/conservation facilities are available on the farm and there is no irrigation water available.

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