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Yellow rust- Fungal disease of wheat

Yellow rust (Stripe rust)

Casual organism: Puccinia striiformis f sp . tritici

Black/stem rust- Fungal disease of wheat

Black rust (Stem rust)


Causal organism: Puccinia graminis f sp.tritici 

Irrigation in litchi


Litchi can grow without irrigation in areas with rainfall (>125 cm) well distributed thought out the year. Frequent irrigation is necessary during early plant growth. Irrigation is with held four month prior to flowering. Critical period for irrigation is from February end to the beginning of monsoon since it is the period of fruit development. During this period if the litchi orchard is not frequently irrigated, there may be a severe fruit drop and fruit cracking.

Critical stages of scented rice

Favorable optimum temperature for various growth stages of rice

  • Germination: 21-31 deg-C
  • Transplantation: 15 deg-C
  • Growth in Height: 25 deg-C
  • Tillering: 32-34 deg-C (Flower initiation)
  • Day Temperature: 25-30 deg-C
  • Night Temperature: 20-25 deg-C
  • Anthesis: 30 deg-C
  • Ripening: 23 deg-C

Other pests of litchi

Bark eating caterpillar

The caterpillars feed on the bark of the tree during night. They bore inside the trunk or main stems and eat through the bark in to the wood. The affected portion is covered with large silken webs. In case of severe infestation plants may die.

Fruit cracking in litchi


Origin of Litchi


Termite-Insect/Pest of wheat

Termites damage the crop soon after sowing and sometimes near maturity.  The damaged plants dry up completely and are easily pulled out.  The plants damaged at later stages give rise to white ears.  Infestation is heavy under unirrigated conditions and in the fields where un-decomposed farm yard manure is applied before sowing.

White tip nematode


White tip nematode: Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie

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