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Climatic requirement for Wheat- temperature

Wheat is crop of cool environment. However, it requires different temperatures at different stages of plant growth and development. Temperature requirement may slightly differ from one variety to another at the time of germination, however, general minimum  temperature  is required from 3.5-5.50 c and  optimum 20-250 and maximum temperature is 350 . On temperature below or above to optimum, germination of seed decreases slowly.

Wheat growing zones in India

Considering the variable agro-climatic conditions, the country has divided in six wheat growing zones. Development of varieties as well production technologies are being done as per the requirement of particular zone to faster the pace of yield enhancement.

Soil requirement in wheat

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Loam soil is the best for wheat cultivation. Clay and sandy loam soils can also used for wheat cultivation provided there is proper system of drainage and these soils should not either be acidic or sodic. Besides wheat field should be free from weeds. 

Kernel-Shoot system in wheat

Kernel of wheatWheat has caryopsis type of fruit. The typical wheat kernel is from 3-10 mm length and from 3-5 mm in diameter.  The composition of a wheat kernel is:

Infloresence-Shoot system of wheat

The inflorescence of wheat is known as 'spike of spikelets' or 'ear'. There are 2 rows of spikelets in front of each other. Spikelets are systematically arranged and are distributed along the central zig-zag axix, which known as 'rachis'. Infloresence of wheat

Leaf-Shoot system of wheat

Leaf consists of four parts:

Stem-Shoot system in wheat

Wheat stem generally possesses height from 60-70cm (in case of three gene dwarf verities) to 125cm (tall varieties). The stem of wheat plant is round or cylindrical. In most varieties of the bred wheat the stems are hollow, accept at the nodes where they are solid but in a few varieties of durum wheats the internodes are completely filled with the soft pith. There are 5 - 7 nodes on the stem. Stem is solid on nodes and hollow in between the internodes. Maximum portion of wheat is covered with leaf sheath. Stem is often glabrous or some times it is hairy.

Nutritive value of wheat

Wheat is consumed as bread, biscuits (cookies), pastry, noodles, semolina, snack foods etc. in other countries. In India around 70 per cent wheat is consumed in the form chapati and  the  rest 30 per cent is used for  making bread, Bread, biscuits, pastry, sweet dishes etc.  Wheat grains are rich in gluten protein.

Origin of wheat

Wheat was already an important crop when history was first recorded and so accurate information on the exact time and place of its origin is not available. The distribution of the wild wheats and grasses, believed to be the progenitors of the cultivated wheats, supports the belief that wheat originated in southeastern Asia.

Control measures of weed in wheat fields

Control measures

  1. The weeds can be controlled either manually or through the use of herbicides/weedicides. One hoeing after about a month would keep the weeds under control and provides aeration to the developing root. Closer planting and cross sowing was also found effective to reduce these weeds. Because wheat is grown on a very large acreage, it is not possible to control the weeds with manual labour
  2. Use of herbicides/weedicides

(A) Broad leaf weeds: Bathua, Satyanashi, Krishnneel, Gazari, Piazi etc.

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