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Botanical description

Botanical description

Botanical description



The rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) is a member of Gramineae  family. The common cultivated rice plant is an annual which usually grows to a height of half a metre to two metres but there are certain varieties that grow much taller (6-9 metres). Some deep water rice varieties that grow with the gradual rise of the flood water level. Rice plant can divided into two main parts namely root shoot system.

Botanical classification of Rice

Botanical name: Oryza sativa L.

Family: Gramineae

Repoductive stage


Maturity stage

The grain is mature and fully developed, when it is hard and free fro m green tint, the panicle at this stage bends in the shape of an arc. In some varieties the stem and the upper leaves may still remain green.


Tillering stage


Tillers are continuously produced depending upon  the tillering ability of a variety; hybrids produce faster and much more tillers. By the 30/35th DAS secondary tillers start coming up from the primary tillers (Fig, 2.4) By this time plant also grows taller. Tertiary tillers follow the secondary tillers and they come out from the secondary tillers


Dough stage

As the ripening advances the milky liquid in grain becomes thicker and finally attains dough stage.

Milky stage

As the name indicates the spike lets if opened at this stage show the grain in a white thick liquid condition. The panicle at this stage starts drooping.


Flowering stage

It begins soon after heading. The anthers of the terminal spikelet are first to come out, others follows. Anthesis occurs 25 days after PI, irrespective of the variety. At this stage the panicle is erect in shape.Pollination / fertilization: Rice is highly self pollinated. The florets open from morning to afternoon depending upon variety and weather. The stamens elongate and anthers move out of the glumes as the pollen is shed. The pollens' are received by the pistil and move to the ovary via pollen tubes.

Heading stage

This is the stage when the panicle comes out .Generally 3 weeks after panicle initiation stage.


Booting stage

In short and medium duration varieties  it coincides with the maximum tilloering phase. This stage begins when the primordial of the panicle has differentiated and becomes visible; about 50-55 DAS. It occurs first in the main stem and then in the primary and secondary tillers. Availability of sufficient water in field as essential. Unavailability of sufficient water, as can happen in direct seeded rice, delays panicle emergence.

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